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STATE OF NEW YORK 


DEP ARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 


WATER POWER AND CONTROL COMMISSI. N ' 


Geology and Ground-Water 
Resources of 
Rockland County, NeVI York 


With Special Emphasis on the Newark Group {Triassic} 


By 
NATHANIEL M. PERLMUTTER 


Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey 



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Prepared by the 
u. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


in cooperation with the 
NEW YORK WATER POWER AND CONTROL COMMISSION 


BULLETIN GW-42 
A L BAN Y, N. Y. 
1 959 




STATE OF NEW YORK 


DEP ARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 


WATER POWER AND CONTROL COMMISSION 


Geology and Ground-Water 
Resources of 
Rockland County, Ne
 York 


With Special Emphasis on the Newark Group (Triassicl 


By 
NATHANIEL M. PERLMUTTER 


Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey 


Prepared by the 
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


in cooperation with the 
NEW YORK WATER POWER AND CONTROL COMMISSION 


BULLETIN GW-42 
A L BAN Y, N. Y. 
1 959 



ST ATE OF NEW YORK 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 
WATER POWER AND CONTROL COMMISSION 


HAROLD G. WILM . . 
J. BURCH McMoRRAN 
LOUIS J. LEFKOWITZ 
HERMAN E. HILLEBOE, M.D. 
DON J. WICKHAM . 
JOHN C. THOMPSON 


. . Conservation Commissioner 
Superintendent of Public Works 
Attorney General 
Commissioner of Health 
Commissioner of Agriculture and Markets 
. . . . . . . . . Execut.ive Engineer 


UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
Fred A. Seaton, Secretary 


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


THOMAS B. NOLAN . 
LUNA B. LEOPOLD . 
PHILIP E. LAMoREAUX 
GEORGE C. TAYLOR, JR. 


. . . . . . . . Director 
Clu"ef Hydraulic Engineer 
Ch
'ef, Ground Water Branch 
. . . . . District Geologist 



1" 



CONTENTS 


Abstract . . 


Page 
1 


Introduction 
Location and culture 
Purpose and scope . 
Topography and drainage. 
Climate ... . 
Previous reports . . . . . 
Acknowledgments . . . . 
Well-numbering and location system 


1 
1 
2 
3 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
7 
9 
9 
11 
11 
12 
12 
12 
13 
14 
14 
15 
15 
15 
16 
17 
21 
21 
23 
23 
23 
23 
24 
25 
25 
26 
28 
28 


General geology . . . . . . 
Summary of stratigraphy 
Structural geology 
Geologic history 


Ground water . . . 
Source and occurrence 
Ground water in consolidated rocks 
Precambrian rocks . . . . . 
Geologic properties. . . . 
Water-bearing properties . 
Cambrian and Ordovician rocks 
Geologic properties. . . 
Water-bearing properties 
Newark group. . . . . . . 
Geologic properties. . . 
Surface of the Newark group 
Water-bearing properties . . 
Palisade diabase and associated igneous rocks 
Geologic properties 
Water-bearing properties . . . 
Ground water in unconsolidated deposits 
Till . . . . . . . . . . . 
Geologic properties. . . 
Water-bearing properties 
Stratified drift. . . . . . . 
Geologic properties. . . 
Water-bearing properties 
Recent deposits . . . . . . 
Fluctuations and trends of water levels 


ill 



CONTENTS (Continued) 


Page 


Ground Water-Continued 


Quality of water . . . 


Chemical quality of water in relation to use and source 
Precambrian rocks 
Newark group . 
Palisade diabase 
Stratified drift . 
Surface water . 


33 
39 
41 
41 
42 
42 
43 


Comparison of the chemical quality of ground water and surface water 44 
Temperature of water 44 
Recovery of ground water 46 
Wells and pumps 46 
Springs 48 


Utilization 
Domestic, institutional, and agricultural supplies 
Industrial supplies . . . . . . . . 
Puhlic supplies . . . . . . . . . 
New York Water Service Corp. 
Spring Valley Water Works and Supply C
. . 
Village of Hillburn 
Village of Suffern 
Feasibility of additional development of ground water 
Present and future problems 


49 
52 


52 


53 
54 
54 
55 
55 


56 
57 


References cited 


58 


Index 


131 


List of ground-water bulletins 


Back cover 


IV 



ILLUSTRATIONS 


Page 


Plate 1. lVlap of Rockland County, N. Y., showing location of wells 
and springs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. In pocket 
2. Map of Rockland County, N. Y., showing bedrock geology 
and generalized section A-A'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. In pocket 
3. l\IIap of Rockland County, N. Y., showing distribution and 
thickness of till, stratified drift, and alluvium. . . . . . . . .. In pocket 
4. Section B-B' across Hudson River at Tappan Zee Bridge. " In pocket 


Figure 1. Index map of New York showing status of ground-water investi- 
gations in 1959 and location of Rockland County. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 
2. Section C-C' across Hackensack River valley, near West Nyack, 
N. Y.................................................... 17 


3. Contour map of bedrock surface, vicinity of West Nyack, N. Y., 
shmving buried valleys of the Hackensack River. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 18 
4. Dra;\vdown and recovery of water level ill well Ro 94, New Hemp- 
stead, N. Y., uuring pmnping test, December 4 to 14, 1950. . . .. 21 
5. Recovery of water leveb in the Spring Valley well field, Spring 
V alley Water Works and Supply Co., during shutdown from 
September 28 to October 11, 1954. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 22 
6. Section D-D' across Lake DeForest Reservoir near New City- 
Congers Road. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 26 
7. Graphs showing the effect of intermittent pumping of well Ro 190 
on water levels in two observation wells, Ro 534 and Ro 535, at 
Suffern, N. Y.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ., . . '" 27 
8. Fluctuations of water levels in wells Ro 18, Ro 77, and Ro 99, 
monthly mean discharge of Hackensack River at Rivervale, 
N. J., and monthly precipitation at Spring Valley, N. Y.. . . . . .. 29 
9. Comparison of hardness, alkalinity, and pH of ground water and 
surface water at selected sampling points in Rockland County, 
N. Y.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 39 


10. Graphs showing fluctuations in chemical quality of water from well 
Ro 190 and from Ramapo River at Suffern, N. Y., discharge of 
Ramapo River, and precipitation, 1954-56. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 45 
11. Graphs showing month-end temperature of water in well Ro 190 
and Ramapo River at Suffern, N. Y., 1954-57. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 46 
12. Graphs showing compariBon of yield before and after development 
of well Ro 92, at Blauvelt, N. Y.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 49 
13. l\IIap showing location and magnitude of heavy withdrawals of 
ground water in Rockland County, N. Y., 1956. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 51 


v 



TABLES 


Page 
Table 1. Miscellaneous discharge measurements on streams in Rockland 
County, N. yT.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 


2. wlonthly precipitation from composite records at Suffern and 
Spring Valley, N. Y., 1942-56. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 


3. Geologic units in Rockland County, N. Y., and their water- 
beating properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 


4. Comparison of yields and depths of wells in relation to the geologic 
source of the water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13 


5. Physical properties of selected samples of rocks of the Newark 
group, Rockland County, N. Y.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 19 


6. Comparison of reported water levels in selected wells in the Newark 
group, Rockland County, N. Y.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 30 


7. Chemical analyses of ground water and surface water, Rockland 
County, N. Y.. . . . . . .. . . .. .. ., . . ., ... . .... .. . . . . .. . '" ... 34 


8. Summary of chemical analyses of ground water and surface water, 
Rockland County, N. Y.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 40 


9. Temperature of water in wells in the Newark group, Lederle 
Laboratories, Pearl River, N. Y., 1952-53. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 47 


10. Records of selected springs, Rockland County, N. Y.. . . . . . . . . .. 50 


11. Average daily withdrawals by months, in millions of gallons, from 
wells owned by six metered-water users, 1956. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 52 


12. Average daily withdrawals by months, in millions of gallons, from 
wells owned by Lederle Laboratories, 1948-56. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 53 


13. Summary data on public-supply installations in Rockland County, 
N. Y.................................................... 54 


14. Average daily withdrawals, in millions of gallons, from individual 
well fields of the Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co., 
1951-57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 55 


15. A verage daily withdrawals, in millions of gallons, by the Spring 
Valley Water Works and Supply Co., 1920-57. . . . . .. . . . . . '" 56 


16. Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County, N. Y.. 60 


17. Records of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County, 
N. Y.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 101 


18. Summary of data from pumping tests made by drillers in wells 
tapping different aquifers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 121 


vi 



Geology and Ground-Water Resources of 
Rockland County, New York 
With Special Emphasis on the Newark Group (Triassic) 
By Nathaniel M. Perlmutter 


ABSTRACT 


This report is part of a cooperative investigation by the U. S. Geological Survey and the New 
York State Water Power and Control Commission of ground-water conditions in New York. Rockland 
County, encompassing an area of about 200 square miles, is located in the southeastern part of the f:tate. 
The population in 1957 was about 114,000. The altitude of the land surface ranges from sea level in the 
eastern part of the county to about 1,300 feet in the western part. Precipitation averages abo'lt 47 
inches per year. 
The principal bedrock units are: (1) Precambrian crystalline rocks, (2) the Newark group, which is 
composed of sedimentary rocks of Triassic age, (3) the Palisade diabase of Triassic age, and (4) quartzite, 
limestone, and shale of Cambrian and Ordovician age. The Newark group underlies the eastern two- 
thirds of the county and the Precambrian rocks underlie most of the remaining area. Deposits of Pleis- 
tocene till cover most of the bedrock surface. Stratified drift composed of sand, gravel, silt, and clay 
overlies the deposits of till in many stream valleys. The stratified drift is generally less than 100 feet 
thick but in the buried channel of the Hudson River, it may be as much as 600 feet thick. 
Ground water derived from precipitation within the borders of the county is the chief souree of 
water supply. The principal aquifers are the Newark group and stratified drift. Yields of wells i"l the 
Newark group range from 3 gpm (gallons per minute) to about 1,500 gpm. The median yield of 25 
large-diameter public-supply wells is 300 gpm and the median depth is 407 feet. Wells in other bedrock 
units generally yield less than 10 gpm and are less than 200 feet deep. The median yield of 18 wells 
in stratified drift is 183 gpm and the median depth is 26 feet. Yields of as much as 1,500 gpm have been 
reported from test wells tapping stratified drift in the Ramapo and Mahwah River valleys where condi- 
tions are favorable for induced river infiltration. 


Water levels in some wells in the Newark group fluctuate as much as 30 to 40 feet annually, largely 
owing to the influence of pumping. Ground-water withdrawals in 1956 averaged about 10 mgd (million 
gaJlons daily) and was mostly from the Newark group. 
Water in the bedrock, on the average, has moderate hardness, low concentration of iron, and is 
slightly alkaline but in some places the water is very hard and is acidic. Water in stratified drfft is 
generally soft to moderately hard and is acidic. At several places along the shore of the Hudson River 
both the stratified drift and the Newark group contain salty water derived from the Hudson River. The 
average temperature of the ground water is about 51° F. 
Additional substantial ground-water supplies are available from stratified drift in the Mahwah and 
Ramapo River valleys and from the Newark group chiefly in the western part of the county. 


INTRODUCTION 


Location and Culture 
Rockland County is on the west side of the Hudson River in the southeastern part of New York 
(fig. 1). It has the shape of an equilateral triangle with its base oriented in a northerly direction along 
the center line of the Hudson River and its apex pointing west. The maximum north-south and east- 


1 



west dimensions are about 23 miles and 19 miles, respectively; the total area including a part 0+ the 
Hudson River, is about 200 square miles. The county is bordered on the east by the Hudson River, on 
the northwest by Orange County, New York, and on the southwest by Bergen and Passaic Counties, New 
Jersey. 


In 1900 the total population of Rockland County was about 40,000. Since the end of V r orld 
War II the population has increased rapidly and in 19.57 it was 113,783, according to a special count by 
the U. S. Bureau of the Census. The population in 1957 was distributed among the five towns in the 
county (fig. 13) as follows: Clarkstown, 24,280; Haverstraw, 15,073; Orangetown, 39,034; Ramapo, 27,264; 
and Stony Point, 8,132. It i::; estimated by the Rockland County Planning Board that by 1980 the 
population will1w about 300,000 if the prPRPnt rate of growth contimH.\R. 
The county, formerly largely an agricultural area with some light industry and summer re
orts, 
is rapidly becoming urbanized owing chiefly to its nearness to New York City and by the fact that it is 
crossed by a number of major highways, among which are the New York State Thruway, the Palisades 
Interstate Parkway, and Route 9VV. Industries also have been attracted by the favorable transportation 
facilities and other local advantages. Among the larger industries are those engaged in the production 
of the following: biologicals and chemicals, paper Iboxes, artificial pipe and conduits, wallboard, cos- 
metics, sand and gravel, and crushed rock. A small number of summer camps and resorts, as well as 
several large state parks also are located in the county. 


Purpose and Scope 
The investigation of the ground-water resources of Rockland County was made by the U. S. 
Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Water Power and Control CommissiOl1. It 
is part of a long-range program to investigate and to prepare reports, generally of a reconnaissance type, 
on the ground-water conditions in each county in the State. The locations of counties for which reports 
have been published or in which investigations are in progress are shown on figure 1. As ground water 
is the chief source of water supply in Rockland County, its full development as well as conservation is of 
vital concern to the rapidly-growing population and to industries already established or planning to locate 
in the area. 
The report is largely descriptive in character. The geology of the county is discussed insofar as it 
bears on the occurrence/movement, availability, and chemical quality of the ground water. A substantial 
part of the report consists of the presentation of basic geologic, chemical, and hydrologic data in tables 
and on illustrations for use in understanding present ground-water conditions and in planning additional 
development. 
A large part of the records for the 525 wells and test borings, and 14 springs listed in this report 
were collected in 1951 by H. D. Wilson and R. E. Whitson, formerly of the Geological Survey. These 
records were supplemented by geologic and hydrologic data collected by the author at scattered intervals 
between 1951 and 1957. The field work was done under the supervision of M. L. Brashears and J. E. 
Upson, former district geologists. The report was completed under the direction of G. C. Taylo", Jr., 
district geologist, Mineola district, and R. C. Heath, geologist-in-charge of the Albany subdistrict office, 
New York. 


The determination of the geologic and water-bearing characteristics of the formations are basp,d on 
interpretation of well logs, records of test borings for highways and bridges, data from pumping tests 
made by drillers, and reconnaissance examination of outcrops. No test holes were drilled specifically for 
this investigation nor were pumping tests made by or under the supervision of Survey personnel. V\r ater- 
level measurements were made periodically in two wells and an automatic water-level recorde'" was 
maintained on a third well. Water samples collected from the principal aquifers were analyzed by the 
New York State Department of Health and the Quality of Water Branch of the Geological Survey. 
Records of chemical analyses obtained from several private laboratories were used also to interpret the 
quality of the water. 


2 



Topography and Drainage 
Two physiographic provinces, the Piedmont province and the New England province (Fenn
man, 
1938, p. 145-152 and 368-370) are sharply defined topographically in Rockland County. The north- 
western or highland part of the county is underlain by crystalline rocks of the Reading Prong extension 
of the New England province. The part of the highland near the New Y ork-N ew Jersey boundary 
commonly is referred to as the Ramapo lVIountains and the part near the Hudson River is referred to as 
the Hudson Highlands. The surface of the upland is rolling and has relatively low relief except in the 
deep gorges of the Ramapo and Hudson Rivers. The summits are generally at altitudes of 1,100 to 1,200 
feet, and the maximum altitude is about 1,300 feet. The eastern face of the upland is a steep e

arp- 
ment that overlooks a broad lowland to the east. 
The lowland in the eastern part of the county is the north end of the Piedmont Lowland sl
ction 
of the Piedmont province. The bedrock consists chiefly of gently-dipping beds of relatively soft sedi- 
mentary rocks that have been eroded to form a series of low, northerly-trending ridges separated by 
narrow valleys. Summit levels on the ridges range in altitude from about 600 feet in the westerr part 
of the lowland to about 200 feet in the eastern part. The valleys are incised as much as 150 to 200 feet 


N 
j 


REPORT 


GW - WATER POWER AND CON'J'ROL COMMISSION 
GROUND-WA TER BULLET! N 
CIR- U.s. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY CIRCULAR 


10 ° 
L...I......- I 


SCALE 
I ? 2 ,0 3 , 0 4 , O/ollILES 


Figure I.-Index map of New York showing status of ground-water investigations in 
1959 and location of Rockland County. 


3 



below the crests of the ridges. The eastern slopes of the ridges are somewhat steeper than the western 
slopes owing to the westerly dip of the beds. 
A wen-defined ridge of diabase rises above the lowland in eastern Rockland County and roughly 
follows the trend of the Hudson River as far north as Haverstraw where it curves to the west and ter- 
minates several miles from the river. The ridge ranges in width from about 0.5 to 1 mile and in altitude 
from about 200 feet at the south end to 832 feet near the north end at High Tor, a prominent point just 
south of Haverstraw. Summit levels on the diabase ridge are about 600 to 700 feet above sea level. 
The eastern face of the ridge is nearly vertical and in many places the rock is broken along vertical joint 
planes forming a series of hexagonal columns. The western slope of the ridge is gentle at some places 
and steep at others. The ridge is cut by several narrow valleys called cloves and by a wide gorge near 
Piermont through which Sparkill Creek flows east to the Hudson River. 
The streams in Rockland County are tributary to the Hudson River, Hackensack River, and 
Passaic River. In general streams flowing northerly and easterly discharge into the Hudson River, 
streams flowing southwesterly discharge into the Passaic River, and those flowing southerly discharge 
into the Hackensack River. 
The Hudson River, which forms the boundary between Rockland County and Westchester County, 
is the largest stream in the area. The river is estuarine in character and the water level has a normal 
tidal range of about 3 feet in the vicinity of Rockland County. The depth to the river bottom is gen
rally 
less than 15 feet but in the main channel in the northern part of the county it is more than 100 feet. deep 
in several places. The valley of the Hudson is markedly constricted at the northern and southenl ex- 
tremities of the county and is widest opposite Haverstraw (pI. 1). 
Aside from the Hudson River there are 8 other principal streams in the county (pI. 3). The 
names of the streams and the area of their drainage basins in Rockland County are given in the table 
below. Of these streams the three largest are the Hackensack River, the Ramapo River, and the Mahwah 
River. 


Principal drainage basins of Rockland County 


Area of drainage basin 
Name of stream in Rockland County 
(square miles) 
Cedar Pond Brook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5 
Hackensack River. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.0 
(above dam on Lake DeForest) 
Hackensack River. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.5 
(below dam on Lake DeForest) 
Mahwah River. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.5 
Minisceongo Creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.9 
Pascack Brook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3 
Ramapo River. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.1 
Saddle River. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.0 
Sparkill Creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 


The Hackensack River drains an area of about 48 square mi]es in eastenl Rockland County. 
The discharge from the northern part of the watershed drains into Lake DeForest Reservoir which is 
controlled by a dam at West Nyack. The reservoir is about 4 Illiles long, 0.25 to 0.5 mile widE:, and 
has an area of about 1,020 acres. The storage capacity is about 5.6 billion gallons at a water surface of 


4 



85 feet above mean sea level. The maximum depth of water in the reservoir at full capacity is r,bout 
20 feet. In order to protect the rights of the downstream users of the Hackensack River, the New York 
State Water Power and Control Commission requires release of sufficient water at the dam to maintain a 
discharge equivalent to 9.75 mgd in the stream immediately above the intake works of the village of 
Nyack at West Nyack. The Hackensack River has a large range in discharge during the year. One 
miscellaneous measurement made in Rockland County is given in table 1 and a graph of the mO'lthly 
mean discharge at Rivervale, N. J., several miles below the State line, is shown on figure 8. A K",ging 
station was constructed in 1959 on the Hackensack River at West Nyack by the Geological Survey to 
measure the flow. 


The Ramapo River enters the county near Sloatsburg and flows southeasterly through the Ramapo 
Mountains to Suffern where it crosses the State line and flows southwest into New Jersey. Table 1 gives 
miscellaneous discharge measurements made on the Ramapo River in Rockland County, and figure 10 
shows the graph of the monthly mean discharge near Mahwah, N. J., about 1 mile southwest of Suffern. 


The Mahwah River flows southwesterly along the contact between the crystalline rocks of Pre- 
cambrian age and the rocks of Triassic age in Rockland County (pI. 2) and discharges into the Ramapo 
River at Mahway, N. J. A single miscellaneous discharge measurement is given in table 1. 


Minisceongo Creek and Cedar Pond Brook flow easterly across northern Rockland County and 
discharge into the Hudson River. Reservoirs on these streams are used to store water for public supply 
in the towns of Haverstraw and Stony Point. 


Table 1.-Miscellaneous discharge measurements on streams in Rockland County, N. Y. 


(Measurements by Surface Water Branch, U. S. Geological Survey) 


Drainage area 
Point above point of Date Discharge 
Stream of measurement of (cubic feet per 
measurement (sq uare miles) measurement second) 
Hackensack River At West Nyack . . . . Sept. 18, 1957 9.5E 
Mahwah River N ear Suffern 12.5 Nov. 9, 1951 115 
Ramapo River At Ramapo 87.3 Mar. 12, 1936 6,100 
July 19, 1956 84.6 
Aug. 27, 1956 33.5 
Apr. 12, 1957 393 
May 6, 1957 48.4 
May 29, 1957 45.3 
July 17, 1957 14.5 
Sept. 18, 1957 162 
Ramapo River At Sloatsburg 60.1 Nov. 9, 1951 406 
Stony Brook At Sloatsburg 16.0 Nov. 9, 1951 97.3 
July 19, 1956 8.29 
Aug. 27, 1956 24.7 
Apr. 12, 1957 64.1 
May 6, 1957 7.45 
May 29, 1957 5.4C 
July 26, 1957 .70 


5 



Climate 
The climate of Rockland County is the humid continental type characteristic of the lower Hudson 
valley. Winters are cold but generally are not unduly long nor severe and summers are relatively short 
and warm. Precipitation is abundant and, on the average, is relatively evenly distributed throughout 
the year. There are no long-term published climatological data for Rockland County. The U. S. 
Weather Bureau has maintained cooperative weather stations intermittently for short periods at S')ring 
Valley, Sparkill, and Suffern. In 1957 the only Weather Bureau station in the county was operat.ed at 
Suffern by the village Water Department. Both precipitation and temperature data are collected at 
this station. The Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co. has maintained a precipitation station 
at Spring Valley since 1930. According to the records of the company, the average annual precipitation 
at Spring Valley between 1930 and 1957 was about 47 inches. 
Table 2 shows the maximum, minimum, and average monthly precipitation at Suffern and Epring 
Valley. The average precipitation ranges from 3 to 5.8 inches per month and is fairly evenly distributed 
throughout the year. It is slightly higher during July and August, than during other months. 


Table 2.-Monthly precipitation from composite records at Suffern and Spring 
Valley, N. Y., 1942-56 


Month 


January. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
February. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
March. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
April. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
May. .............. ...... ........ 
June. ............................. 
July. .......................... 
August. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
September. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
October. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
November. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
December. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....... 


Maximum 
(inches) 


Minimum 
(inches) 


Average 
(inches) 


6.2 
5.2 
9.8 
7.9 
8.3 
5.4 
18.1 
13.4 
8.1 
13.3 
8.2 
6.5 


0.9 
1.9 
2.0 
1.2 
1.5 
0.4 
1.8 
0.9 
1.0 
0.5 
1.2 
0.2 


3.4 
3.0 
4.6 
4.0 
4.9 
3.5 
5.8 
5.3 
4.0 
3.3 
4.9 
4.1 


The average annual air temperature at Suffern is about 51 0 F. The relation between air tempera- 
ture and ground-water temperature is discussed in the section entitled "Temperature of water." 


Previous Reports 
No reports on the ground-water resources of the county have been published previously. A small 
number of reports on the geology of parts of the county have been published by the New York State 
Museum and by the U. S. Geological Survey. These reports mainly date back prior to 1920. The 
geology of the Triassic rocks is described in reports by Darton (1890) and by Ktimmel (1899) ar.d the 
geology of the crystalline rocks in the northern part of the county is covered in reports by Berkey and 
Rice (1921) and Lowe (1950). Descriptions of the occurrence and geologic history of some of the glacial 
deposits, mainly along the Hudson River, are given in reports by Peet (1904), Woodworth (1905), and 
Fairchild (1919). 


6 



Acknowledgments 
The writer is indebted to numerous residents of Rockland County and to many private and public 
organizations for supplying much of the basic data presented in this report. Detailed logs of wells, data 
on pumping tests, water-level measurements, pumpage, and chemical analyses were supplied by the 
Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co. Records of wells and pumpage were provided by the New 
y ork Water Service Corp. and the village of Suffern. Data on public-supply wells were supplied by the 
New York State Water Power and Control Commission. Water analyses were obtained from the New 
York State Department of Health, Rockland County Department of Health, and Thomas Riddick, 
consulting chemist and engineer. The New York State Department of Public Works, the New York 
State Thruway Authority, and the village of Nyack supplied records of test borings. Lederle Laboratories 
maintained an observation well and contributed records of wells and pumpage. M. E. Johnson, forrrerly 
State Geologist of New Jersey, made available to the author copies of field maps containing geologic notes 
by H. B. Kummel which were helpful in preparing part of the geologic section of this report. Leggette, 
Brashears, and Graham, consulting geologists, supplied several logs of wells and data on pumping tests. 
The following well-drilling companies contributed many records of wells: Artesian Well and 
Equipment Co., Inc.; Rinbrand Well Drilling Co.; M. W. Ives and Son; C. W. Lauman & Co., Tnc.; 
Layne-New York Co., Inc.; E. Harriet; and E. Hamilton. 


Well-Numbering and Location System 
Wells and springs plotted on plate 1 are numbered serially beginning with Ro 1. The prefix "Ro" 
(abbreviation for Rockland County) is omitted on the map but is given in tables and in the text w:'1ere 
reference is made to specific wells, and the suffix "Sp" follows spring numbers. The map coordinates 
are based on a rectangular grid system that gives the distance in miles and direction from the intersec
ion 
of lat. 41° 15' N. (line 16) and long. 74° 00' W. (line X). For example, the coordinates for well Ro 140 
are 16X, 13.2S., 1.2W. which indicates that the well is 13.2 miles south and 1.2 Iniles west of the irter- 
section of lines 16 and X on plate]. 


GENERAL GEOLOGY 
Summary of Stratigraphy 
Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian, Paleozoic, and Mesozoic age 
comprise the bedrock of Rockland County. These consolidated rocks are overlain by unconsolidr,ted 
deposits formed during the Pleistocene and Recent epochs. The distribution of the major units of 
consolidated rocks and unconsolidated deposits are shown on plates 2 and 3, respectively. Their lithologic 
and water-bearing properties are summarized in table 3. 
Crystalline rocks, chiefly of Precambrian age, lie deeply buried beneath rocks of Triassic and 
early Paleozoic age in all of the county except in the extreme western and northern parts where they c.rop 
out. Several varieties of rocks compose the crystalline rocks but they are not differentiated in this 
report. Rocks of early Paleozoic age crop out in a narrow belt extending 5 miles southwest from the 
Hudson River between Precambrian rocks to the northwest and rocks of Triassic age to the southeast. 
The Paleozoic rocks consist of quartzite, limestone, shale, and phyllite which are not differentiatec 1 in 
this report but are believed to be the equivalent of the Cheshire quartzite (locally known as Poughquag 
quartzite), Stockbridge limestone (locally known as Wappinger limestone), and the Hudson River for- 
mation. These formations crop out also across the Hudson River in Westchester County and there are 
considered to be of Cambrian and Ordovician age (Berkey and Rice, 1921; p. 62-64). The rockr of 
Triassic age consist of sedimentary and igneous rocks. The sedimentary rocks consisting chiefly of 
sandstone, shale, and conglomerate are referred to as the Newark group (Kummel, 1899) from the t:rpe 
locality at and near Newark, New Jersey. The Newark group in Rockland County includes the Bruns- 
wick and Stockton formations. The Brunswick formation underlies most of the area and the Stockton 
formation underlies a small area south of Nyack in the extreme southeastern part of the county. As 


7 



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8 



the position of the contact between the Stockton and the Brunswick formations is not known precisely in 
Rockland County, and as there is little difference in their water-bearing properties both formation'" are 
treated as a single geologic and hydrologic unit in this report. The Newark group was intruded by the 
Palisade diabase and associated small intrusives of Triassic age. Unconsolidated deposits of Pleistocene 
and Recent age form an irregular cover over the bedrock. 
Although this report is a cooperative product of the New York State Water Power and Co
trol 
Commission and the U. S. Geological Survey, the geologic nomenclature does not necessarily follow that 
of the U. S. Geological Survey. 


Structual Geology 
The bedrock of Rockland County has been subjected to folding, faulting, and igneous intru
ions 
during several geologic eras with the result that the original rocks, many of which were laid down in more 
or less horizontal beds, are now moderately to intensively deformed and have changed in composition. 
The crystalline rocks of Precambrian age and the adjoining belt of Paleozoic rocks are highly deformed 
(Berkey and Rice, 1921; and Paige, 1956) and are so closely folded that the limbs of the folds are nearly 
vertical in many places. The general trend of the outcrops and the strike of the beds is northeasterly. 
Normal and reverse faults are common and several major faults are shown on plate 2. A major normal 
fault forms the border between the Precambrian crystalline rocks and the sedimentary rocks of Trif\,ssic 
age in the southwestern part of the county (geologic map and section A-A', pI. 2). The belt of Paleozoic 
rocks probably is bounded almost entirely by normal faults. 
The rocks in the TriasEic basin dip generally west and northwest at low angles, usually less than 
10 degrees. At a few places along the border fault southwest of Ladentown, the dip is southeast. This 
reversal of dip may be due to drag folding associated with movement along the fault or it may be due to 
subsidence accompanying igneous activity that formed a body of igneous rock near Ladentown (pJ. 2). 
Differential erosion has produced a series of roughly parallel strike ridges and valleys on the surface of 
the northeast-trending beds. Changes in the strike of the beds in a few places (pI. 2) imply the pres
mce 
of faults but the data are not sufficient to delineate them adequately on the map. In the extreme northern 
part of the Triassic basin the beds strike east and dip at angles of as much as 27 degrees. These rocks 
probably were laid down close to the original margin of the basin. 
In the eastern part of the county the Palisade diabase cuts across the Triassic beds in some p
aces 
as a dike and in other places lies essentially parallel to the beds as a sill (pI. 2). At its northern limit 
the trend of the diabase ridge is almost due west and, thus, is nearly perpendicular to the regional strike 
of the sedimentary rocks. The diabase ridge is cut by a series of faults, mostly of the normal type, 
which commonly are expreEsed topographically as notches or gaps in the ridge. The nlost promi'1.ent 
of these faults is marked by the gap at Piermont through which Sparkill Creek flows (pI. 2). The shattered 
condition of the diabase and the irregular configuration of its outcrop near Nyack also suggest the existence 
of one or more faults in the diabase. 
Although only a few faults have been observed directly owing to the cover of glacial deposits and 
talus, H. D. Thompson (1959, p. 1106-1125) suggests that faults are more common in the Palisade diabase 
than was previously suspected. Largely on the basis of topography, joint spacing and pattern, charf,cter 
of talus, and some observations of slickensides, fault breccia and mineralization of joints, Thompson 
(1959, fig. 1) prepared a map showing some 28 observed and inferred faults in the diabase betvreen 
Mount Ivy and the State line. Most of these are depicted as normal cross faults. Thompson also 
implies that the steep back slope of the diabase ridge in several places is due to longitudinal faulting. 
Lowe (1959, fip;. 8), on the basis of test borings, suggests that the steep back slope of the diabase about 1 
mile south of Haverstraw is due to its dikelike character. 


Geologic History 
The geologic history of Rockland County is similar to that of New Jersey where rocks of the sltme 
age and type crop out. In the following account of the geologic history of the county, many conc
pts 
have been adapted from a report by Kiimmel (1940) on the geology of New Jersey. 


9 



At the beginning of the Triassic period, some 180 million years ago, Rockland County was a 
mountainous area underlain largely by folded Paleozoic rocks. During Early and Middle Trias
ic time 
the area was worn down by erosion almost to a plain. Following this peneplanation, the area was uplifted 
and a basin was formed in the central and eastern parts of the county by differential downwarping and 
faulting. This basin was bounded on the northwest by low mountains composed chiefly of folded Paleo- 
zoic limestone, shale, and sandstone, and on the southeast by an upland composed of Precambrian 
crystalline rocks. The roots of the old upland to the southeast now comprise the bedrock beneath 
Westchester County, New York City, and Long Island. The basin in Rockland County is the rorthern 
end of a basin that extends southwest into the northern part of Virginia and is one of a series of dis- 
continuous basins that formed simultaneously in a region more than 1,000 miles long, extending from 
N ova Scotia to South Carolina. 


Streams flowing from the bordering highlands carried large quantities of clay, sand, and gravel 
into the slowly subsiding basin. These sediments were deposited in lenses and beds on flood p l!1ins, in 
lakes, and as alluvial fans, forming deposits many thousands of feet thick which ultimately were com- 
pacted into sandstone, shale, and conglomerate. Variations in the carrying power of the streams, and 
the occurrence of lakes in the basin from time to time account for the wide range in rock type within 
relatively short distances. Fossil fish, amphibians, reptiles, and plants have been found in the Triassic 
rocks of New Jersey and Connecticut but none have been found in the rocks of the same age in Rockland 
County. 
Ktimmel (1940, p. 106) suggests that the prevailing red color of the Triassic beds indicates a dry 
climate with occasional torrential rains. Krynine (1950, p. 125-180) after extensive studies in Con- 
necticut and elsewhere concluded that the Triassic climate was hot and seasonally very humid. He 
suggests that the red color of most of the beds results from the fact that the source materials werE. in part 
red lateritic residual soils derived from the chemical weathering of the nearby crystalline highlands and 
the red color of some of the beds is due to early post-depositional weathering of the sediments. 
N ear the end of the Triassic, the Palisade diabase was intruded as a sill or dike into the sedimentary 
rocks in eastern Rockland County and, in a small area south of Ladentown (pI. 2), molten rock reached 
the surface, probably through a fissure, and flowed out as lava. At the close of the pedod, the Triassic 
rocks probably were broken into a series of blocks by northeast-trending faults. 
The Jurassic and the first half of the Cretaceous were predominantly periods of uplift and erosion. 
At the beginning of Late Cretaceous time the peneplain which had been formed earlier, began to tilt 
slowly to the southeast and was covered with sand, gravel, and clay. In Tertiary time which followed, 
there were several intervals of deposition, uplift, and peneplanation. By the end of the Tert:!1ry, all 
the deposits of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age were removed by erosion but remnants of three pene- 
plains were preserved. The uppermost, or Schooley peneplain, is preserved on the accordant crests on 
the crystalline highlands and the Palisade diabase. The Harrisburg and Sommerville peneplains are 
preserved in the lowlands underlain by the Newark group. 
The final event of major importance relating to the occurrence of ground water took place during 
the Pleistocene epoch when glaciers moved south across the county, perhaps several times. During stages 
of advance the ice sheets eroded the surface of the bedrock and during melting stages, they depo,:ited on 
the surface an unsorted mixture of clay, sand, gravel, and boulders (till). Streams flowing from the 
ice sheets deposited stratified material in the larger valleys. During the melting stage of the last ice 
sheet large lakes occupied parts of the Hackensack and Hudson River valleys. Thick deposits of clay 
and silt were laid down in these lakes along with layers of sand and gravel. The explanation of the 
origin of the Pleistocene deposits in the Hudson Valley has been a source of considerable diffw'ence of 
opinion among geologists. The two principal explanations that have been offered are (1) the glacial-lake 
hypothesis, and (2) the estuarine hypothesis. Peet (1904), Woodworth (1905), and Reeds (1933), 
suggest that the deposits in the Hudson Valley were laid down in a series of glacial lakes which developed 
behind the terminal moraine formed by the ice sheet at the Narrows in New York City and behind other 


10 



moraines farther north. Fairchild (1919), on the other hand, suggests that the deposits were laid down 
in an estuary or arm of the sea during a late Pleistocene submergence of the Hudson Valley whe:"" the 
sea flooded the valley as the ice melted. 
Since the melting of the last ice sheet, the Pleistocene deposits have been eroded in some r 1aces 
and deposits of sand, gravel, silt, and clay have been laid down by streams in other places. 


GROUND WATER 


Source and Occurrence 
Ground water is defined as subsurface water that is in the zone of saturation (Meinzer, 1923, p. 38). 
The zone of saturation is the zone in which all interconnected openings are saturated with water under 
pressure equal to or greater than atmospheric. The upper surface of the zone of saturation is refernd to 
as the water table. 


Ground water is a renewable resource that is derived almost entirely from precipitation ,,,ithin 
the borders of the county. The precipitation that falls on the land surface is disposed of as for0ws: 
(1) part runs off over the surface into streams, (2) part is evaporated directly from the surface of th
 soil 
and bodies of water, (3) part enters the soil zone and is returned to the atmosphere by transpiration of 
plants, and (4) the remainder percolates downward into the zone of s
turation and becomes ground 
water. 


The percentage of the precipitation that becomes ground water depends principally on the char,<:\,cter 
of the deposits and slope of the surface on which precipitation occurs and on soil-moisture requirem
nts. 
Also, there are wide ranges in the infiltration capacity of different types of deposits. For example, 
stratified sand and gravel will absorb and transmit water more readily than glacial till, and some types 
of bedrock will absorb and transmit water more readily than silt or clay. 
During the summer, soil-moisture requirements are high owing to use of water by plants and 
evaporation. Thus, less water is available to replenish the ground-water reservoir. During the winter 
and early spring, plant activity and evaporation are at a minimum and more of the precipitation rer,ches 
the zone of saturation. 
Although no studies have been made in the county, estimates of recharge have been mad
 for 
deposits of sand and gravel in Long Island where it is estimated that nearly half of the precipitation 
falling on sand and gravel reaches the zone of saturation (Burr, Hering, and Freeman, 1904, p. 811). 
Thus, on the basis of an annual rainfall of about 47 inches in Rockland County, it is estimated that re- 
charge in areas underlain by sand and gravel may average about 1 mgd per square mile. The amount of 
water reaching the zone of saturation where the surficial deposits are composed of till or bedrock, which 
have relatively low permeability, is not known but is considerably less. In those areas in which th
 till 
is composed largely of sand and gravel, the recharge may be substantial. In areas where the till is 
composed chiefly of clay the recharge is very small. The bedrock is exposed in only a small part Of the 
county and consequently receives little direct recharge from precipitation. 
Upon reaching the zone of saturation, the water moves down the hydraulic gradient, that is, in 
the direction of decreasing head, towards points of discharge. In granular deposits the moveme'1t is 
through interconnected pore spaces, whereas in bedrock the movement is along joints, fractures, and 
other openings. The rate of movement of ground water ranges from a few inches to a few feet or more 
per day depending on the permeability and porosity of the deposits and on the hydraulic gradient. 
Ground water occurs under either water-table conditions or under artesian conditions. Under 
water-table conditions, the water is unconfined, that is, the top of the zone of saturation is in free contact 
with the atmosphere, and the position of the water table is indicated by the water level in wells. Under 
artesian conditions the water is confined between relatively impermeable beds and the water in wells rises 
above the top of the water-bearing zone in which it occurs but not necessarily above the land surface. 
The imaginary surface represented by the water levels in artesian wells is called the piezometric surface. 


11 



The amount of water stored ill rocks depends on the porosity or the volume of pore space, ,rhich 
is commonly expressed as a percentage of the total volume of the rock. There are two types of porosity, 
primary and secondary. Primary porosity is that due to the presence of original openings that came into 
existence at the time the the rocks were formed. Secondary porosity is that due to openings that formed 
after the rocks were consolidated. The porosity of unconsolidated deposits is of the primary type rnd is 
due almost entirely to the presence of interstices between the constitutent grains. The porosity of con- 
solidated rocks, on the other hand, is mainly of the secondary type and is due chiefly to the presence of 
openings developed along joints, faults, and other fractures. Consolidated rocks, such as some b('tfs of 
sandstone and conglomerate, may also have substantial primary porosity. The porosity of beds of well- 
sorted sand or gravel generally ranges from 25 to 35 percent. In consolidated sedimentary rocks such as 
those of the Newark group in Rockland County the primary porosity ranges from about 1 to 21 percent 
(table 5); the secondary porosity is not known. Pore spaces in some rocks may be numerous but very 
small and poorly interconnected. The permeability of such rocks is low and they do not yield water 
readily to wells. The permeability is a measure of the capacity of rocks to transmit water. It c".n be 
expressed as the number of gallons of water per day that flows through a section of aquifer (water-bearing 
unit) one foot wide and one foot thick, oriented at right angles to the direction of flow, and un der a 
hydraulic gradient of one foot per foot. The permeability of the rocks in Rockland County rangeE' from 
almost zero in parts of the bedrock to an estimated 500 to 1,000 gpd per square foot in stratified sand 
and gravel. 
Under natural conditions, the rate of recharge is balanced by the discharge, except for temr: orary 
differences due to changes in the amount of water stored in the aquifer. Withdrawal of water from a 
well creates a cone of depression in the water level. As the withdrawal continues, the cone of depr'
ssion 
deepens and broadens until a balance is reached between recharge, natural discharge, and the withdrawal. 
When this balance is reached, the water level in the well stabilizes and the cone of depression ceases to 
expand. 
The water-bearing deposits of Rockland County are classified as: (1) consolidated rocks and (2) 
unconsolidated deposits. The yields and depths of wells penetrating the principal water-bearing units are 
summarized in table 4 and the geologic and water-bearing characteristics of the principal sour
es of 
ground water are described in the following sections. 


Ground Water in Consolidated Rocks 
The consolidated rocks are the chief source of water in Rockland County. The principal units 
from oldest to youngest are: (1) Precambrian rocks, (2) Cambrian and Ordovician rocks, (3) Newark 
group, and (4) Palisade diabase and associated igneous rocks of Triassic age. Of these units, the reeks of 
the Newark group constitute the principal aquifer. 


PRECAMBRIAN ROCKS 
Geologic Properties 
Crystalline rocks of Precambrian age crop out in a northeast-trending belt of about 70 square miles 
in the northwestern part of the county (pI. 2). They also form the deeply buried basement beneath the 
rocks of Triassic age in the eastern part of the county. The crystalline rocks consist predominantly of 
gray and pink fine- to coarse-grained granite, and gray banded coarse-grained gneiss, and include some 
dark-colored schist, diorite, ultra-basic igneous rocks, marble, and thin dikes of diabase. N early all 
these crystalline rocks are thought to be of Precambrian age except a few small bodies of ultrr..basic 
igneous rocks such as those of the Cortlandt series which crop out at and near Stony Point and some 
scattered diabase dikes which are probably younger in age but which have been included with th
 Pre- 
cambrian rocks on plate 2 for convenience. The crystalline rocks are intensely folded and faulted and are 
broken into irregular blocks by joints and other fractures. The openings are generally widest and most 
numerous near the surface. 


12 



Table 4.-Comparison of yields and depths of wells in relation 
to the geologic source of the water 


Yield Depth 
(gpm) (feet) 
Geologic Range Range 
unit 
No. of No. of I 
wells Median Low High wells Median Low Pigh 
Stratified drift 18 183 8 1,500 26 26 5 170 
Newark group 
All wells 265 30 3 1,515 337 165 13 805 
a Public-supply wells 25 300 150 1,515 25 407 247 655 
Palisade diabase 10 5 2 16 12 188 72 770 
Cambrian and Ordovi- 
cian rocks 7 9 3 30 9 130 34 345 
Precambrian rocks 32 12 0 180 52 105 25 640 


a Production wells of Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co. Yield of wells based on data from initial pumping tests. 


The crystalline bedrock is fresh to only slightly weathered because glaciers scoured the surface and 
removed soft and highly weathered material during Pleistocene time. Since the end of the Pleistocene 
epoch a small amount of chemical weathering has taken place along some faults and joints, and 
,t the 
contacts between the bedrock and the overlying unconsolidated deposits. Major irregularities on the 
bedrock surface are of preglacial origin and are due mainly to weathering and erosion of the rock along 
fault zones and joints and to erosion of belts of relatively soft rock by streams. Some preglacial physio- 
graphic features were etched out in sharper relief by glacial erosion. The Precambrian rocks are treated 
as a single unit in the following sections owing to their complex distribution, petrology, and structure, 
and the general lack of differences among them with respect to their water-bearing characteristics. 


Water-bearing Properties 
The crystalline rocks are dense and have low porosity, probably less than one percent. G'-ound 
water is contained mostly in openings along faults, joints, and irregular fractures. The yield of wells 
drawing from bedrock depends on the number, size, and degree of interconnection of the openings pene- 
trated by the wells. Relatively high sustained yields can be obtained only where the fractures in the rock 
are hydraulically connected with a good source of recharge such as a lake, stream, or permeable vrater- 
bearing deposits. Drilling to depths greater than about 300 feet is not warranted in most places as the 
number and size of openings below that depth diminishes rapidly. Studies in other areas underl2 in by 
crystalline rocks indicate that, on the average, yields of wells in valleys are higher than the yiel
s of 
wells on hills. The main reasons for this are: (1) valleys commonly are formed along fault. zones or where 
the rock contains numerous joints, and (2) many valleys contain permeable glacial deposits that ad as a 
reservoir and may transmit substantial quantities of water to the underlying rocks. The data from 
Rockland County indicate that lithologic differences among the various types of crystalline rockr only 
have a minor influence on the yjelds of wells. 


13 



Relatively little ground water IS pumped from the crystallme rocks because the area in whicb they 
crop out is sparsely settled. The population and, thus, the wells are concentrated at the northef,stern 
and southwestern extremities of the crystalline belt. Records for 32 wells (table 4) indicate a range in 
yield from 0 to 180 gpm and a median yield of 12 gpm. The median depth of 52 wells is 105 feet and 
the range is from 25 to 640 feet. 
The drawdown in most pumped wells in crystalline rock is high owing to low storage capacity of 
the fractures in the rock. The specific capacity (rate of yield per unit of drawdown) of the wells for which 
data are available averages less than 0.5 gpm per foot. An exceptionally good yield was obtained from 
well Ro 467 at Hillbul'n (pI. 1). This well was drilled for a motel located on a small hill which rises about 
230 feet above the flood plain of the Ramapo River. It was drilled entirely in gneiss to a depth of about 
600 feet. The reported static water level is about 230 feet below land smface. The well was pumped 
for 6 hours, at an average discharge of about 180 gpm; the specific capacity at the end of 4 ho'll's of 
pumping was 2.1 gpm per foot (table 18). The driller reports that water started to enter the well at 
about 300 feet below land surface. Conceivably deep-lying fractures or a fault zone in the bedroc1- may 
be connected with water-bearing deposits of sand and gravel in the nearby valley of the Ramapo River. 


CAMBRIAN AND ORDOVICIAN ROCKS 
Geologic Properties 
Beds of quartzite, limestone and dolomite, and phyllite of Cambrian and Ordovician age occur 
in northern Rockland County in a narrow elongated belt that extends from a short distance south of 
Thiells northeasterly to the Hudson River (pI. 2). The beds strike northeast in roughly parallel bands 
and dip generally southeast about 45 to 70 degrees. The strike and dip measured at a few plac
s are 
shown on plate 2. Rocks having the same lithology, structure, and stratigraphic relations occur en the 
east side of the Hudson River in Westchester County where they have been mapped as three di"tinct 
formations (Berkey and Rice, 1921; geoI. map). From oldest to youngest these formations an: (1) 
Poughquag quartzite of Cambrian age, (2) Wappinger limestone of Cambrian and Ordovician age, and 
(3) Hudson River formation of Ordovician age. There is little doubt that these same formations occur 
in Rockland County. However, as outcrops are scarce and the structural relations of the rocks are not 
fully known, the area underlain by the formations is shown on plate 2 as a generalized unit designated 
Cambrian and Ordovician rocks. The large increase in the width of the outcrop of Cambrian and Ordo- 
vician rocks to the northeast, near the Hudson River, results from repetition of beds owing to folding 
(Paige, 1956, p. 391-394) and possibly faulting. 
Quartzite occurs in a narrow band along the northwest side of the belt of Cambrian and Ordo- 
vician rocks. Two outcrops, both on hillsides, were observed by the writer. One is on the northwest side 
of the intersection of Hammond and Mount Ivy Roads at Thiells (pI. 2), and the other is about 1,000 feet 
west of the intersection of Goetschius Bridge Road and Washburn Lane, about 1.2 miles north of T
'iells. 
The outcrop of quartzite at Thiells is separated from serpentinized gneiss by a fault zone along its w
stern 
border. A lowland that immediately borders the quartzite to the east probably is underlain by lime- 
stone but the contact is not exposed. In the outcrop north of Thiells the quartzite is so highly fra('
ured 
that the angle of dip cannot be determined readily. The quartzite apparently is missing in most of the 
area northeast of these outcrops. 
The quartzite is a light gray to tan dense, hard, glassy rock, composed principally of silica. In a 
few places the rock is stained light brown by iron oxide. The maximum thickness in Westchester County 
is reported to be about 600 feet; however, the thickness in Rockland County is not known. The rock is 
broken into angular blocks and small fragments along closely spaced joints and fractures. 
Limestone and dolomite occur in light gray to blue, finely crystalline beds in a belt of irr,
gular 
width from the vicinity of Thiells to the Hudson River. The belt is about 0.1 mile wide for most of its 
length but is about 1 mile wide near the Hudson River. The rocks are bordered on the west by qWJ,rtzite 
and by granite gneiss, and on the east by phyllite and by conglomerate, sandstone, and shale of the 


14 



Newark group. At Stony Point, the limestone and dolomite are intruded by basic igneous rocks of the 
Cortlandt series. Calcium carbonate is the chief constituent of the limestone and calcium magnesium 
carbonate is the chief constituent of the dolomite. The carbonate rocks are broken by numerous joints 
and some faults and as they are relatively soft and easily weathered they commonly underlie valleys. 
The rocks are quarried for use as road metal at Tomkins Cove near the Hudson River (pI. 2). 
Phyllite occurs in several scattered bodies. The main body occurs in a narrow band extending 
northeasterly along most of the southeastern margin of the belt of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks (pI. 2). 
It is bordered on the northwest by beds of limestone and dolomite, and on the southeast by the Newark 
group. Smaller bodies of phyllite occur near the Hudson River at the extreme northeastern end ('t the' 
belt and at Stony Point. The small body of phyllite at the northeastern extremity of the bel
 lies 
between limestone on the southeast and crystalline rocks on the northwest. At Stony Point highly 
foliated mica schist and gneiss crop out between limestone on the west and south and igneous rocks of the 
Cortlandt series to the north and east. Paige (1956, p. 391-394) suggests that the schist at Stony Point 
is a metamorphosed equivalent of the phyllite found in Westchester County. The unweathered phyllite 
is a highly foliated dark-gray to blue-gray rock. It is composed chiefly of quartz and mica and contains 
small scattered concretions and crystals of pyrite. Weathering of the pyrite and other iron-be",ring 
minerals stains the surface of the rock rusty brown in some places. The beds are highly contorted ('wing 
to folding and faulting. Slickensides (polished and striated surfaces) are common along fault zones and 
on joint faces. 


Water-bearing Properties 
The yield and depths of wells penetrating the Cambrian and Ordovician rocks are summarized as a 
group in table 4 and the water-bearing characteristics of each of the three major rock types are desc"ibed 
below. 


Water occurs in the quartzite in openings along fractures, joints, and bedding planes. Few wells 
have been drilled in the quartzite owing to its limited extent and the lack of development of the area. 
The yields of wells in quartzite generally are low but sufficient for domestic supplies. 
vVater occurs in limestone and dolomite in openings along joints, faults, and bedding plfl,nes. 
Some of these openings may have been widened slightly by solution although the rocks are not knoFn to 
be cavernous. Yields of four wells in limestone ranged from 4 to 10 gpm. Such yields are not necesfarily 
a true measure of the water-yielding characteristics of the rocks because where they are highly fractured 
and are overlain by permeable stratified deposits, the rocks may contain and yield substantial quantities 
of water. The water is hard to moderately hard. 
Water occurs in the phyllite in openings along cleavage and bedding planes, joints, faults, and 
irregular fractures. Only a small number of wells tap the phyllite. The yields of two wells (Ro 263 and 
Ro 264) are 3 and 15 gpm. Low yields, substantial lowering of water levels during dry periods, and 
caving of the walls of uncased holes have been reported by some owners. The water is used mainly for 
domestic purposes. 


NEWARK GROUP 
Geologic Properties 
The Newark group of Late Triassic age occurs in an area of about 100 square miles in the ce'1tral 
and eastern part of the county (pI. 2), where it lies unconformably on the northwest sloping surface of 
rocks of Precambrian and of early Paleozoic age. The eastern boundary of the Newark group terminates 
beneath the Hudson River in Westchester County (geologic sections, pIs. 2 and 4). The southern part 
of the western boundary is along a normal fault. Here the Newark group is on the downthrown side and 
crystalline rocks are on the upthrown side. The northern part of the western boundary is along a prob- 
able fault between the Newark group and Cambrian and Ordovician rocks. The Newark group extends 
south beyond the State line into New Jersey. 


15 



The lithology of the Newark group is known from scattered outcrops and from drillers' logs of 
wells and test borings (table 16). The principal types of rock are sandstone, shale, and congloill9rate. 
In extreme southeastern Rockland County, the Newark group consists of gray and tan arkosic sanc1.;;tone 
and conglomerate and interbedded purple and red fine- to coarse-textured sandstone, and red anc 1 gray 
shale and siltstone. These rocks were intruded by the Palisade diabase and for short distances above 
and below the contacts they are hardened and discolored by the heat of the intrusion. In the remainder 
and by far the larger part of the county, the Newark group is composed of interbedded red and brown 
fine to coarse sandstone and conglomerate and some beds of shale. The beds and zones of sandstone 
. and conglomerate range in thickness from 1 foot to as much as 500 feet and form upland areas in the 
w
stern part of the Triassic basin. The shale and siltstone range in thickness from a few inches to 100 
feet and form lowlands in the eastern part of the basin. In some places sandstone and shale oc
ur in 
alternating beds from about 2 to 20 feet thick. The sandstone and conglomerate are composed mainly of 
quartz, muscovite, some feldspar, and particles of shale, sandstone, quartzite, and slate. Fragments of 
granite, gneiss, and schist are rare. Beds of coarse conglomerate, known as border conglomerateF, that 
have a very distinctive lithology occur along the northwestern and northern borders of the Triassic basin. 
They are poorly sorted and loosely cemented, and consist mostly of subangular to subrounded pebbles, 
cobbles, and boulders of gray limestone and dolomite embedded in a reddish sandy and shaly matrix. 
Thin layers of shale and calcareous sandstone are interbedded with the conglomerates. The apparent 
absence of fragments of crystalline rocks in the conglomerates suggests that the parent material con- 
sisted chiefly of Paleozoic rocks that have since been removed by erosion. 
The maximum thickness of the Newark group in New Jersey is estimated to be about 15,OCO feet 
(Rummel, 1940, p. 102). In Rockland County the maximum thickness is probably less, perhaps on the 
order of 10,000 feet. It is difficult, however, to make reliable estimates owing to the probability of 
omission or duplication of beds by faulting. With few exceptions the strike of the beds of the Newark 
group ranges from north to N. 45° E. and the dip is westerly, ranging from 4° to 20°. The average of 41 
measurements of dip made by Rummel (1899, geol. map) is about 9°. Fault contacts in the Newark 
group generally are not readily distinguishable in the field owing to the glacial cover. The major normal 
fault zone along the western border is inferred from general structural relations, topographic expression, 
and one exposure of the shear zone on the eastern face of the crystalline highland in Suffern. Faults 
have been reported in the Newark group at Upper Nyack and at Stony Point by Kummel (1899, p. 44-47). 
Cross faults observed at several places in the Palisade diabase must extend from some distance into the 
adjoining rocks of the Newark group. 


Surface of the Newark Group 
The relief on the surface of the Newark group is readily apparent in many places owing to the 
thinness of the overlying glacial deposits. The altitude of the surface ranges from about 600 feet above 
sea level in the western part of the county to about 730 feet below sea level beneath the Hudson River 
in the eastern part. The most prominent features are a series of roughly parallel strike ridges and yalleys 
largely developed by preglacial stream erosion on dipping beds of sandstone and shale. In some places 
the glaciers and meltwater streams deepened existing valleys which were later partly filled with glacial 
deposits. 
Among the valleys that were deepened were those of the Hackensack and Hudson Rivers which 
were cut below the present sea level. The configuration of the bedrock surface in the vicinity of the 
Hackensack River valley near West Nyack is illustrated on geologic section C-C' (fig. 2) and a bedrock 
contour map (fig. 3). The deepest point on the bedrock surface in the valley is about 55 feet below sea 
level. Several abandoned channels which have been fined with glacial deposits are shown on the illus- 
trations. They are evidence of the change in the course of the Hackensack River during the Pleis
ocene 
epoch. 


The deepest depression on the surface of the Newark group is shown on pia te 4, a section across the 
Hudson River along the alinement of the Tappan Zee Bridge based on test boring and seismic data. 


16 



..,; 
It: 
c 

 

 
u; 
c 


.. 
'" 
« 


III 
U 
C 

 

 
= 0 
'j 


West Nyock 


c' 


Qi 
> 

 .!! 
o 
:: 
2 


EXPLANATION 


"tI 
o 
u 

 
 
0-7'0 
z 1" , 
/? I 1 7 
/ "+' ..(\, 
/ ?, .;.' 
Stratified '" -=:: drift // 
7- 
 0",,'C/ 
.. /-(0 0,'" 

 I.: / {f1:-- 

 \ 1 ": ..:-- / 11' 

 \. -: :.'" / {il 
\ :
:
'.....__/;.' :./ if
&.o
 

 : 
 Till -:{.
 I 
 
\
... & ...<",{
e usa' 
'I'" 
7TI\" 


/ 
/ 
-/ 
// b& 
,/ .::;...0 0 ,," 
qO,
 
b' 


30 


.: -30 
0> 
'\:I 

 
<I: 
-60 


SCALE IN FEET 
500 , C? 



 
Silt 
E3 
Clay 
1Ai";il 

 
Till 

 
Diabase 

 
Sandstone and conglomerate 
R0262 
Number of water well 
Tbl2 
Number of test boring 
Note: Depth of casing refusal assumed to be 
appro.lmate depth of bed rock surface. 



 
Artificial fill 
rtm 
Peat 


... 
.2! 


,'+ 
.0 

& 


D 
Fine sand 

 

 
Medium sand 
r.;-:-:] 

 
Coarse sand 


50 .0 


IiiO'Ol 

 
Gravel 


/ + 
/ 1'-1- 
/- 
// + 
./ 


Figure 2.-Section C-C' across Hackensack River valley, near West Nyack, N. Y. 


The section shows that the deepest point on the bedrock surface is about 740 feet below sea level in a 
buried channel near the west side of the river. The depth of the buried channel is based on seismic re- 
fraction data reported by Worzel (1951) and Worzel and Drake (1959). In seeking an explanation for 
the unusually great depth to bedrock at the Tappan Zee Bridge, it is useful to compare the depths there 
with information both upstream and downstream from the bridge. At Storm King, about 25 miles 
upstream, the depth to bedrock beneath the Hudson River is greater than 765 feet but less than 950 
feet below sea level (Berkey and Rice, 1921, p. 96). Downstream from the Tappan Zee Bridge, as far 
south as The Narrows between Brooklyn and Staten Island, test borings for bridges and tunnels have 
penetrated bedrock at numerous places but to date none of these are reported to have penetrated be'irock 
at depths greater than about 350 feet below sea level. At these places there are some relatively narrow 
spaces between the existing test borings in which the depth to bedrock mlLY be somewhat greater than 
350 feet. 


The writer has examined cores from wells drilled on Long Island which suggest that sea level was 
as much as 500 feet below its present level during Tertiary or Early Pleistocene time. Howeve-:-, the 
available data for the Storm King crossing and the Tappan Zee Bridge suggest that the large depths to 
bedrock at these sites are not entirely a result of sea-level changes and normal stream erosion. BQ,rkey 
(1911, p. 91-95) describes the Hudson valley at Storm King as having the character of a gorge within a 
gorge and suggest that it was widened and overdeepened by a lobe of ice that was confined between 
Storm King Mountain on the east and Breakneck Mountain on the west. Likewise the depression at the 
Tappan Zee Bridge has the character of a gorge within a gorge and it is not unreasonable to suggest that 
glacial overdeepening of a channel cut in a relatively soft belt of rocks or possibly along a fault zone in the 
Newark group may account in part for the large depth of the depression. A similar conclusion was 
reached by Worzel and Drake (1959, p. 1104-1105). 
Less prominent but nevertheless distinct depressions on the bedrock surface occur also beV),eath 
the valleys of the Ramapo River, Mahwah River, Sparkill Creek, Pascack Brook, and Cedar Pond E rook. 


Water-bearing Properties 
The Newark group is the principal source of ground water in the county. The formation is well- 
cemented generally and most of the water occurs in openings along bedding planes, joints, and irrf
ular 


17 



N 
t 


ROuiE 59 


o 
o 
N 


CJ 
Newark group 
f7':'T1 
I&...:...:..:J 
Po Ii sa de d io base 


tl 


. 
Well or test borIng 
t hot reached bedrock 
X 
Outcrop of be d rock 
"'-50- 
Contour Ifne 
Contour inte rval 50 feet 
Datum is mean sea level 


00 

ft) 


o 


1/2 
I 


SCA LE 
o 
I 


1/2 MILE, 
I 


NotetSection C-C' shown on figure 2. 


Figure 3.-Contour map of bedrock surface, vicinity of West Nyack, N. Y., showing buried 
valleys of the Hackensack River. 


18 



fractures. Such openings are described as seams and crevices by drillers and are reported to be as much 
as 0.5 to 1.5 feet wide in some wells (Ro 89 and Ro 461, table 16). Wells drilled in the Newark group 
commonly penetrate water-bearing openings at several depths. The amount of inflow from such openings 
depends on the size of the fractures and the difference in head between the water level in the well and 
the water level in the formation. In a few places the rocks of the Newark group are poorly cemented 
and considerable water occurs in interstices between the constituent grains. Laboratory determinations 
of permeability and primary porosity listed in table 5 show that, for the samples tested, the permer,bility 
is very low and that the primary porosity ranges from about 1 to about 21 percent. 
Water in the Newark group occurs under both water-table and artesian conditions. TV"ater 
occurs under water-table conditions in the upper part of the Newark group in most of the upland areas 
and in those valleys in which the rocks are overlain by permeable unconsolidated deposits. Water-level 
measurements made during the construction of several large public-supply wells indicate rather wide 
differences in head among the several water-bearing zones tapped by individual wells (table 16). For 
example, the water level in well Ro 291 was about 16 feet below land surface when the well was 315 feet 
deep but declined to about 23 feet below land surface when the well was 360 feet deep. The water level 
in well Ro 483, on the other hand, rose from 53 feet below land surface at a well depth of 83 feet to 33 feet 
below land surface at a well depth of 125 feet. These differences suggest that the water-bearing ope'1ings, 
in at least a part of the Newark group, are separated by relatively impermeable zones. The Fater- 
bearing openings are probably largely along bedding planes which in some places are not freely inter- 
connected through joints and other vertical openings. The lack of relatively free interconnection be-4;ween 
water-bearing openings probably results in artesian conditions in large parts of the Newark froup. 
Artesian conditions also occur in the Newark group in valleys where the rocks are overlain by uncon- 


Table S.-Physical properties of selected samples of rocks of the 
Newark group, Rockland County, N. Y.I 


Depth Pef'lle- 
Type below Apparent Primary ability 
Locality of Description of land specific porosity (gpd per 
sample sample surface gravity (percent) square 
(feet) foot) 
1. Upper dam site, Core Gray sandstone 87 2.51 5.1 0.01205 
Lake DeForest, 
Clarkstown 
2. do. Core Hard red shale and 83 2.52 4.7 .010347 
sandstone 
3. do. Core Red sandy shale 61 2.47 6.7 .01015 
4. Orangeburg Outcrop Sandstone 0 2.50 10.8 . . . . . . . . 
5. do. Outcrop Sandstone, fine 0 2.50 9.8 . . . . . . . . 
6. do. Outcrop Sandstone, coarse 0 2.49 12.8 . . . . . . . . 
7. do. Outcrop Conglomerate 0 2.55 7.9 . . . . . . . . 
8. Route 59, east of Core Sandstone, fine to 50 . . . . 15.5 0 
Rose Rd. medium 
9. do. Core Sandstone, coarse 24 . . . . 20.9 28 
10. do. Core Shale 46 . . . . 10.0 0 
11. Route 202, Town Outcrop Conglomeratic 0 . . . . 1.1 0 
of Ramapo sandstone 


1 Data for samples 1 to 3 furnished by Spring Valley Water Co., analyst unknown. Samples 4 to 7 analyzed by New York State Department of 
Public Works, and samples 8 to 11 analyzed by U. S. Geological Survey. 


19 



solidated deposits of low permeability. In some areas the artesian head is sufficient to cause the wells 
to flow, for example, at Pomona (Ro 438), Rockland Lake (Ro 532), Stony Point (Ro 468), Tallman 
(Ro 294), and Viola (Ro 130). The natural flow is reported to range from 35 to 100 gpm in some artesian 
wells and in a few the water reportedly rose as high as 10 feet above land surface. 
The median depth of the wells tapping the Newark group listed in table 17 is 165 feet. The 
deepest well (Ro 532) is 805 feet deep. Wells in the Newark group for which records were coll'"!cted 
yield from 3 gpm to about 1,500 gpm and have a median yield of 30 gpm (table 4). The largest yields 
are from large-diameter public-supply wells. The median yield of 25 public-supply wells of the S.'1fing 
Valley W ateI' Works and Supply Co. is 300 gpm and the median depth is 407 feet. The specific cap acity 
of most wells is less than 5 gpm per foot of drawdown. The highest specific capacity of a well tapping 
the Newark group is 57 gpm per foot at well Ro 130 (Viola). The yield of wells is seldom increased by 
drilling below a depth of about 400 feet. Merely deepening a well does not insure an increase in yield, 
as indicated by evidence from wells in which successive pumping tests during drilling showed no increase 
in Yield or specific capacity below a given depth. 
Many of the most productive wells in the county are in valley areas, for example, wells Ro 81 to 
Ro 86, Ro 295 and Ro 468. The higher yields in these areas appear to result principally from two factors. 
First, the valleys are areas in which water is discharging naturally from the Newark group and a psrt of, 
or in some areas all of, this discharge is salvaged by the withdrawals. Second, permeable stratified 
deposits overlie the Newark group in many of the valleys. In areas where heavy withdrawals from the 
Newark group have caused water levels to decline below the water table in the overlying stratified deposits 
leakage occurs from the stratified deposits into the Newark group. It should be noted that in valleys 
underlain by relatively impermeable unconsolidated deposits neither of the above factors will be effe
tive. 
Thus, well Ro 11, which was drilled to a depth of 300 feet in the valley of Sparkill Creek near the s')uth- 
eastern corner of the county, yielded only 13 gpm with a drawdown of 31 feet. The log of the well 
(table 16) shows that there the Newark group is overlain by 86 feet of fine sand, clay, and till. It is 
not known to what extent a lack of openings in the bedrock and the presence of the Palisade dip,base 
about a half mile to the east also may have contributed to the low yield of the well. 
A comparison of the topography and water levels in wells tapping the Newark group shows that, 
in general, the altitude of the water surface is highest beneath hills and lowest beneath valleys. Thus, 
under natural conditions water moves from the hills toward points of discharge in the valleys, that is, 
from areas of high head to areas of low head. The general pattern of movement described above prob- 
ably applies throughout the Newark group, but locally complexities in the pattern of movement may 
result from fault zones, igneous intrusions, and pumping. Although relative heads determine the general 
direction of movement of the water, the actual path through the rocks from intake to discharge areas 
conforms with the pattern of interconnected openings in the rocks, and therefore may be quite irregular. 
The water in the Newark group east of the Palisade diabase is completely separated from water 
in the main body of the Newark group to the west. The direction of movement of water in the Newark 
group east of the Palisade diabase is east toward the Hudson River. No water moves betwee"'l. the 
Newark group north of the Palisade diabase and the main body to the south. 
Pumping tests of public-supply and industrial wells made by drillers upon completion of con- 
struction usually consist of pumping the well at various rates and measuring the water level periodi
any. 
The tests, which are summarized in table 18, were made at rates of pumping ranging from 80 to 47
 gpm 
and ranged in duration from about 7 to 63 hours. Data from two other tests are plotted on figrres 4 
and 5. 


Although the results of these tests are useful in determining the yield of a well and designing a 
pump installation, they are considered to have limited value in making precise computations d the 
transmissibility, permeability, and storage coefficient of the aquifer. First, water-level measurements 
were made only in the pumping well. Second, the pumping rate was not held constant. Thirc. the 
characteristics of the aquifer vary widely from the assumptions upon which the standard pumping-test 


20 



formulas are based. For example, the size, shape, and distrIbution of openings in the rocks ar1 such 
that the Newark group cannot be considered as a homogeneous and isotropic aquifer. Also, in p
rts of 
the Newark group the flow of water may be turbulent rather than laminar, a condition which would 
invalidate the pumping-test calculations. 
Figure 4 shows the graph of the water level in well Ro 94 located in a valley at New Hemostead 
during a pumping test conducted from December 4 to 14, 1950. The well was pumped at a rate of 700 
gpm from December 4 to 11 and the water level stabilized about 33 feet below land surface after 1. 5 
days of pumping. The stabilized water level represents a drawdown of about 18 feet. The graph also 
shows the abrupt changes in water level that occurred when the rate of pumping was changed between 
December 11 and 13. The minor fluctuations in water level between December 5 and 11 probabl:; were 
caused mostly by variations in the pumping rate. The stabilization of the water level and the large dis- 
charge suggest that the bedrock in the vicinity of the well is hydraulically connected to a good source of 
recharge, possibly the water in a nearby extensive body of stratified drift. 


E 
G- 
O' 
t
 


 
 
 "'''''''''')
''''''

 
 


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:
'




r1J 
o 


10 


I I I 
.pum p on,12:15pm I 
I 
5 
--- 
o
 /; 
5 
I f \ 
\. I - JPump off, 
0 
......... ----- Ir 2:00pm 
'" - 
'" 
... 
0 
Dec. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 


II> 
U I 
-t 

 
-g 2 

 

 
0 2 
... 
.c 
... 3 
... 

 
... 3 

 
: 4 
CI 

 


Figure 4.-Drawdown and recovery of water level in well Ro 94, New Hempstead, N. Y., 
during pumping test, December 4 to 14, 1950. 


Data on the recovery of water levels at the well field of the Spring V alley Water Works and 
11pply 
Co. at Spring Valley are shown graphically in figure 5. Pumpage at the well field averaged about 1.5 
mgd up to September 27 when all wells, except Ro 86, were shut down. Ro 86, which was being pumped 
at a rate of 530 gpm, was shut down at noon on September 28. By the end of the shutdown per
')d on 
October 11, the water levels had recovered as follows: 22 feet in Ro 81, 37 feet in Ro 85,44 feet in P.o 82, 
59 feet in Ro 86, and 62 feet in Ro 83. The recovery graphs for wells Ro 82 to Ro 84 are not shown on 
figure 5 although the locations of the wells are shown on the sketch map of the well field. Most of the 
recovery occurred during the first 24 hours of shutdown and apparently was still continuing at a very 
slow rate "vhen the well field was put back into service on October 11. 


PALISADE DIABASE AND ASSOCIATED IGNEOUS ROCKS 
The igneous rocks of Triassic age consist chiefly of diabase and some basalt, commonly referred to 
as trap rock. Trap rock has considerable economic value as road metal but makes a relatively poor 
aquifer in most places owing to its low yield. Locally, however, it may be the only source of ground water. 


Geologic Properties 
The Palisade diabase forms a ridge which roughly parallels the Hudson River from the state line 
northward to Haverstraw where it turns west and disappears beneath the surface east of Lade:'1town 
(pI. 2). Diabase occurs also as a small plug at Union Hill in the village of Suffern and in small n!1rrow 


21 



September 
430 28 29 30 2 

 
:420 
0 

 
en 410 
c 
0 

 
E 

 400 
> 
0 
..0 
0 
_ 390 

 

 
- 
.=
 380 

 I 
> 

 
_ 370 , 

 
- 
0 I 

 , 
360 I 
. 
350 


I I 


------ . 
__._._e_____- 


N 
i 


5 CA LE 
9 . , . . 
 OO FEET 
Spring Valley well ffelr 


Figure 5.-Recovery of water levels in the Spring Valley well field, Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co., 
during shutdown from September 28 to October 11, 1954. 


dikes west of the main ridge. The diabase is dark gray and black in fresh exposures and light gray to 
brown on weathered surfaces. The texture is fine to coarse. The fine-grained texture is characteristic 
of the marginal contact zones and the coarse-grained texture occurs in the interior of the igneous body. 
The rock is composed mostly of tightly interlocking grains of augite and feldspar. 
In some places the Palisade diabase is intruded as a tabular sill between the beds of sedim
ntary 
rocks and in other places it cuts across the bedding planes of the sedimentary rocks as a dike. Prominent 
joints in hexagonal and polygonal patterns usually are developed perpendicular to the margins of the 
dike or sill. Other joints and fractures cross the major joints at various angles. The maximum thick- 
ness of the Palisade diabase is estimated to be about 1,000 feet. The thickness of diabase penetrated by 
a well depends on the location of the well, the inclination of the diabase, and the amount of erosiOll it has 
undergone. For example, well Ro 267 near the base of the escarpment in southeastern Rockland County, 
penetrated 67 feet of diabase before reaching the underlying sandstone. Another well, Ro 21, on the 
crest of the ridge near Nyack penetrated about 750 feet of diabase before entering sandstone. On the 
basis of data from test borings, the stratigraphic thickness of the diabase near the trap rock quarry 
south of Haverstraw is estimated to be about 700 feet (Lowe, 1959, p. 1133). 
A small isolated body of diabase at Union Hill, Suffern, (pI. 2) is roughly circular in plan view and 
probably represents a small stock or dike. The rock is quarried for use as road metal. No wells are 
known to tap the diabase in this area. Near Germonds (pI. 2) and at a few other places west of th
 main 
ridge small dikes of diabase crop out or lie at shallow depth beneath the land surface. In these areas a well 
that starts out in sandstone or shale may penetrate diabase in zones as much as 30 feet thick at several 
depths. For example, at well Ro 292 (pI. 1 and table 16) near Germonds, a short distance north of 
Bardonia, the diabase was encountered at depths of 55, 79, and 126 feet below land surface. Tl'is well 
was abandoned as it yielded only 5 gpm. Another well near Germonds, Ro 291 (table 16), was drilled 
mainly through beds of sandstone and shale, but some thin zones of diabase were penetrated at de')ths of 
436 and 458 feet. Well Ro 291 yields about 150 gpm. There is no evidence that the diabase dikes 
appreciably affect the yield of the well or the movement of ground water. 


22 



Another isolated body of igneous rock that occurs in a small area near the western margin of the 
Triassic lowland just south of Ladentown (pI. 2) is named the Ladentown diabase (Hartnagel, 1P12, p. 
92). These rocks were described first by Kummel (1899, p. 39-42) who referred to them as the Laden- 
town trap. The writer has observed a few outcrops where the rock has a vesicular and spongy texture 
characteristic of a basalt indicating that it probably is a remnant of a small lava flow. Kummel suggests 
that the Ladentown diabase may be connected underground with the west end of the Palisade di
base. 
The Ladentown diabase is dark green to black where freshly exposed and gray to brown where weathered, 
and is dense to fine-grained in texture. The dip of the Newark group in nearby outcrops suggests that 
the diabase lies in a shallow structural basin. The unit has an estimated maximum thickness of about 
200 to 300 feet. 


Water-bearing Properties 
The Palisade diabase has very low primary porosity and permeability. Much precipitation on the 
area of outcrop is lost as overland runoff, but part of the water percolates into the rocks through op:mings 
along joints, irregular fractures, and faults. Most of these openings decrease in width with increasing 
depth and in most places below a depth of about 300 feet, probably are too narrow to yield a significant 
quantity of water. 
Water in the Palisade diabase occurs mostly under water-table conditions. Little is known of the 
precise pattern of movement of water through the diabase. In general, the direction of movement is 
controlled by the head of water and by the joint pattern in the rock. Water in the main ridge of d
abase 
probably moves from areas of high head beneath the crest of the ridge to areas of discharge to tre east 
and to the west. Some of the water discharges on slopes of the ridge through springs and some by move- 
ment into the overlying and underlying sedimentary rocks of the Newark group. A few of the wer
 that 
tap the diabase flow. Yields of wells are relatively low but are generally sufficient for domest
c use. 
The median yield is 5 gpm and the median depth is 188 feet (table 4). 
The Ladentown diabase contains water in openings along joints and irregular fractures. Records 
of one spring and five wells are listed in tables 10 and 17, respectively. The wells range in deptl from 
about 50 feet to 100 feet and one, well Ro 451, has a reported yield of 12 gpm. 


Ground Water in Unconsolidated Deposits 
The bedrock is covered by unconsolidated deposits consisting of sand, gravel, silt, and clay of 
Pleistocene and Recent age except in scattered areas chiefly on hills and hillsides (pI. 3). The deposits 
of Pleistocene age were laid down chiefly during the last glaciation, the Wisconsin stage. They c'1ntain 
and transmit substantial quantities of water in some places. The deposits of Pleistocene age are cla.ssified 
as (1) till and (2) stratified drift. The deposits of Recent age have little value as a source of water owing 
to their thinness and, in many places, their low permeability. 


TILL 
Geologic Properties 
Till, commonly called "hardpan" by well drillers, consists mostly of an unsorted mL-x:ture of sand, 
gravel, boulders, silt, and clay. Deposits of till are unsorted because they were deposited directl
r from 
melting ice, generally without the sorting action of running water. They are heterogeneous ir com- 
position because the ice sheets carried considerable foreign rock material picked up in other areas, Till 
occurs in a substantial part of the county (pI. 3); in more than 90 percent of the area it is the uppermost 
unconsolidated deposit. In much of the remaining area it intervenes between stratified drift an
 bed- 
rock. In some places it is composed mostly of clay, and in others it is composed mostly of saIJ d and 
gravel. The variations in the grain size of the particles comprising the till are suggested by descriptions 
in well logs (table 16). On and near the crystalline rocks in the western part of the county the till cc ntains 
many boulders of gneiss and granite and is gray and grayish brown. In the eastern part of the county 
till deposited on the Newark group contains much locally-derived sandstone and shale and consequently 


23 



is reddish brown. In a few places till contains lenses of stratified deposits, and elsewhere lenses of till 
may occur in some of the larger bodies of stratified drift. 
Till was deposited mostly as an irregular cover on the bedrock and ranges in thickness from a 
few inches to as much as 325 feet. Generally, however, the deposits are less than 25 feet thick. The 
thickest known deposit occurs at well Ro 471, which probably penetrates a large drumlin (an elli'1tical 
hill composed of till) just north of Mount Ivy (pI. 3). The deposits of till beneath stratified dr;ft in 
buried valleys range in thickness from a few inches to about 50 feet but generally are less than 21) feet 
thick. The thickness of till in the valley of the Hackensack River is shown on figures 2 and 6. Figure 
2, section C-C', at West Nyack, shows that the till rests directly on bedrock and has a maximum thick- 
ness of about 20 feet. Figure 6, section D-D', across the northern part of Lake DeForest in the Hacken- 
sack River valley, shows that, there the till has a maximum thickness of about 18 feet. At severd test 
borings in the Hudson River (Nos. 18, 21, 24, pI. 4), the occurrence of a basal till resting on beirock 
was suggested by the compactness of the material indicated by the large number of blows per fo')t re- 
quired for penetration of the casing, and the reported presence of boulders. Several small isolated 
bodies of till surrounded by stratified drift in the Hackensack and Ramapo River valleys are shovrn on 
plate 3. These generally represent capping deposits on isolated high points on the bedrock. 
In a few places the ice stagnated long enough to build an end moraine, a low ridge of till. Two 
closely spaced low ridges rising from 30 to 80 feet above the surrounding outwash plain in the val' 
y of 
Sparkill Creek which extend from the creek northeasterly to Sparkill mark a temporary stand of the ice 
front during the retreat or melting phase of the 'Visconsin ice sheet. The generalized location of this 
moraine is outlined near Sparkill in the southeastern part of the county (pI. 3). The ridges comoosed 
mainly of sand and gravel with some boulders, are reported to be the first morainal deposit in the Hudson 
River valley north of the Harbor Hill terminal moraine at the Narrows at New York City (Woodworth, 
1905, p. 93). Another end moraine composed of reddish bouldery till lies on the north flank of the ridge 
of the Palisade diabase at Haverstraw at an altitude of 100 to 200 feet above sea level and extends E'outh- 
easterly to the Hudson River. Woodworth (1905, p. 98-103) who first described this feature suggests 
that during the Pleistocene epoch the Haverstraw moraine extended across the Hudson River to Croton 
Point, Westchester County where till occurs at and above sea level at several places. The Haverstraw 
moraine, now breached by the Hudson River, marks another temporary stand of the ice front in 
Rockland County during the retreat of the ice in Wisconsin time. 


Water-bearing Properties 
In general, till has low porosity and permeability owing to the poor sorting of its constituent 
particles and the large percentage of fine-grained material present. However, till is by no mear
 im- 
permeable. The permeability is relatively high where the till consists largely of sand and gravf'1 and 
where it contains lenses of stratified sand and gravel. Thin discontinuous zones of saturation commonly 
occur in the till above the main water table in the underlying bedrock. This condition is rest'1.cted 
mainly to those ridges that are covered by a thick veneer of till and results from the fact that the low 
permeability of till retards the downward percolation of water to the underlying bedrock. In contrast, 
till in valleys commonly is completely saturated and contains the main water table. The low p
rme- 
ability of the till retards the upward leakage from the underlying bedrock, and commonly confines the 
water under artesian conditions. 


The occurrence of perched water in the till near Pearl River is indicated by a large difference in 
water levels between a drilled well (Ro 419) in the Newark group and a nearby dug well in the till. On 
June 7, 1957, the Ineasured depth to water in the drilled well was 131 feet below land surface, wl'9reas 
the depth to water in the dug well was only 11 feet. 
Depths to water in till generally range from near land surface to about 25 feet below land surface, 
but in thick deposits such as drumlins the depth to water may be much greater than 25 feet. 'Vater 


24 



levels in till particularly in recharge areas in the uplands, may fluctuate as much as 10 to 15 feet c1'uing 
a year (Ro 18, fig. 8). However, in discharge areas in the lowlands, the range in fluctuation is much 
smaller. Owing to the relatively large fluctuation of the water table in till many shallow dug wdls go 
dry during periods of below-normal rainfall. 
Most of the wells drawing water from till are large-diameter dug wells less than 25 feet deep. 
The highest recorded yield of a well in till is 5 gpm. However, the yields of most wells drawing: from 
till are considerably less. A few open-end drilled wells have been constructed in thick deposits of till 
but no records of their yields are available. In order to obtain a satisfactory yield these wells must 
terminate in sandy zones. 


Till no longer is an important source of water for domestic use in Rockland County because it 
generally cannot supply water in sufficient quantity for use in modern homes and because the water can 
be readily polluted by leakage from septic tanks, cesspools, and other sources. 


STRATIFIED DRIFT 
Geologic Properties 
Stratified drift consists of water-laid, crudely to well-sorted beds and lenses of gravel, sand, silt, 
and clay. The extent and thickness of the deposits are shown on plate 3. The deposits undedie the 
major stream valleys and some form terraces at elevations as high as 100 feet above present !:tream 
levels. The known thickness of the deposits ranges from a few feet to about 300 feet. However, if the 
estimates of depth to bedrock from seismic data are correct, the greatest thickness of stratified drift, 
about 600 feet, is in the buried channel of the Hudson River (pI. 4). Large variations in texture within 
relatively short horizontal and vertical distances (pI. 4 and figs. 2 and 6), are indicative of the rapidly 
changing conditions under which the stratified drift was deposited. Some of t.he material was dep')sited 
while the ice was advancing but probably most was deposited during the retreat of the ice when lobes 
and isolated masses of wasting ice occupied large depressions such as the Hudson, Hackensack. and 
Ramapo valleys. Most of the deposits were laid down on flood plains, as deltas, and in lakes, conse- 
quently, they range in grain size from gravel to clay. 
For convenience in discussing their water-bearing characteristics the stratified deposits are classified 
according to their predominant lithology into two groups (1) sand and gravel, and (2) clay and silt. 
Elongated bodies of brown fine to coarse sand and gravel were deposited in the major valleys by 
meltwater streams. In some valleys the sand and gravel is interbedded with silt and clay. In others 
kame terraces were formed by deposition by streams flowing between the bedrock walls of the valley 
and the margins of the melting ice. Kame deposits commonly consist of poorly sorted coarse sand, 
gravel, boulders, and lenses of till. Cross-bedded sand and gravel interbedded with silt and clay were 
deposited as deltas in a few valleys such as those of the Hackensack River and Cedar Pond Brook. 
The sand and gravel ranges widely in thickness from less than one foot to about 190 feet. The 
thickness of the deposits of sand and gravel penetrated by wells in several valleys is as follow!:': (1) 
Ramapo River valley, 116 feet at well Ro 509 near Suffern; (2) Mahwah River valley, 54 feet at well Ro 
513; (3) Hackensack River valley, 40 feet (figs. 2 and 6); (4) Minisceongo Creek, 184 feet at well Ro 536; 
and (5) Hudson River valley, about 70 feet (pI. 4). 
Thick beds of clay and silt were laid down in lakes that existed in the area during the melting of 
the last ice sheet. Thin beds and lenses of lacustrine clay and silt are interbedded with layers Of sand 
and gravel in some of the larger valleys and in kame terraces. Deposits of clay and silt laid down in 
glacial lakes in thin alternate layers are called varves. Deposits of reddish-brown varved clay and silt 
in the Hackensack River valley are as much as 30 feet thick (figs. 2 and 6). Bluish-gray varved clay is 
exposed in several places along the shore of the Hudson River mainly between Haverstraw and Stony 


25 



Point and occurs at altitudes from 50 feet above sea level to at least 40 feet below. The clay is inter- 
bedded with sand and gravel in a few places and elsewhere rests directly on till. Alternate layers o
 gray 
and reddish-brown silty clay and clayey silt occur beneath the Hudson River in deposits as much as 160 
feet thick (pI. 4). They are overlain by fossiliferous clay and silt of Recent age and are underlr.in by 
stratified sand and gravel and till of Pleistocene age. 


o 


O' 


lOT __ _ _____ 5 .::
..:.
:o::. 
:.
:.8.:.


b
'.: 

 
'.:'__ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ __ _ _ ___ __ _ ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ________ _ ___ __ ___ _ _ _ __ ___ _________ __________1 
.80 

 


o 
\\
iiIi?0i(r;.?» '7, 
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:
b
 d,

i",i, ",::::" :!,'H I"j
 
 
_ 
 .. i. 20 
 
 -'1
 ........, 
g 
 -:'?/)-", , - 

 
 '
?- 
I*:' 
Grov,' Till 
Not. o.p'h O. CO'lng ','uiol aI.u...td to b. 
appro.lmol. d.pth 0' b.drock ",rfoc.. 


Stratified 
drift 


j 0 
;; 
-20 


Figure 6.-Seclion D-D' across Lake Deforest Reservoir near New City-Congers Road. 


Water-bearing Properties 


The stratified drift in Rockland County is not used to any large extent as a source of water at the 
present time. The capacity of the drift to yield water varies widely owing to the wide range in the 
character of the material from relatively impermeable clay to highly permeable sand and gravel. The 
fine sand, silt, and clay which comprises the bulk of the stratified drift in some valleys yield water very 
slowly or not at all, whereas the beds of coarse sand and gravel yield copious supplies. The yields of 
wells in stratified drift range from 8 to 1,700 gpm; the median yield is 183 gpm. The wells range in 
depth from about 5 to about 170 feet; the median depth is 26 feet. The specific capacity of the wells 
tapping the drift ranges from 5 to 173 gpm per foot. 
Water in stratified drift generally occurs under water-table conditions but locally may be under 
artesian conditions where permeable beds are overlain by silt and clay. The depth to water ranges 
from near land surface to 20 feet below. Recharge of the stratified drift takes place mainly by down- 
ward percolation of precipitation and by upward leakage from the bedrock. Infiltration of surface water 
may occur when wells near streams are pumped, and for short periods during flood stages when the river 
level is higher than the water table. Water in the stratified drift is discharged by evapotranspir"""tion, 
leakage into streams, and withdrawals by wells. 
Miscellaneous pumping-test data obtained from private consultants and dril1ers are listed in 
table 18. These data show the drawdowns in pumping wells at different rates of pumping. Figure 7 
shows the effect of pumping from well Ro 190 at Suffern on the water levels in two observation wells, Ro 
535 and Ro 534 which are about 8 feet north and 410 feet northwest of Ro 190. The hydrographs show 
that when well Ro 190 is pumped at a rate of about 1,250 gpm, the drawdown in well Ro 535 is about 8 
feet and in well Ro 534 is about 1 foot. Well Ro 190 is about 400 feet east of the Ramapo River. There- 
fore, if the cone of depression around the pumping well was symmetrical it probably reached the river. 
The graphs in figure 7 do not show the stabilizing effect of recharge from the river owing to the inter- 
mittent operation of the pump. 
A test conducted in September 1954 at Piermont, in the valley of SparkiIl Creek, by Leggette, 
Brashears, and Graham, consulting ground-water geologists, showed that after well Ro 287 was pumped 
at a rate of 325 gpm for about 7 hours, the dra'wdown in well Ro 286, about 250 feet away, was about 13 


26 



C» 

 II 
- 
L. 

 
fI) 

 
c: 
o 


. 
o 
C» 
.Q 


- 
C» 
C» 
- 13 
c: 


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> 
C» 


L. 14 
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- 
o 

 


8 


Oct. 4,57 


6 


7 


5 


Well Ro534 (410ft.NWof well Ro190) 
\ I I I 


9 


10 


\well R0535 !8ft. N of well Ro 190) 


. 


12 - 


15 - 


16 


17 


6. 


o 


Figure T.-Graphs showing the effect of intermiHent pumping of well Ro 190 
on water levels in two observation wells, Ro 534 and Ro 535, at 
Suffern, N. Y. 


27 



feet. The drawdown obtained at different pumping rates during another test made in Ro 286 if given 
in table 18. 


RECENT DEPOSITS 
The deposits of Recent age consist of sand, gravel, silt, clay, and peat. These deposits overlie 
deposits of Pleistocene age in the channels and on the floodplains of streams, on lake bottoms, and in 
swamps. Sand and gravel is mainly restricted to channels and to areas immediately adjacent to the 
streams. These beds are generally less than 10 feet thick. Silt, clay, and peat are restricted to lakes, 
the channel of the Hudson River, and the swampy areas adjacent to the other streams. In f
neral 
these are only a few feet thick but in the Hackensack and Hudson River valleys they reach a thi
kness 
of 35 and 120 feet, respectively. The Recent deposits beneath the Hudson River at the Tappan Zee 
Bridge (pI. 4) are estuarine in character and consist mostly of gray, thin-bedded silt and clay containing 
shells, plant material, and thin layers of peat and fine sand. 
The Recent deposits are of little hydrologic importance because they are thin and of small extent 
in nlost places. A few shallow wells may draw water from the permeable beds. Beds of low perme".bility 
retard the vertical movement of water into and out of the Recent deposits. 


Fluctuations and Trends of Water Levels 
Fluctuations of ground-water levels reflect changes in the quantity of water in storage. Re3harge 
from precipitation causes a rise in water levels. Natural discharge, such as spring flow and seepage into 
streams and lakes, and evapotranspiration; and withdrawals from wells, cause a decline in water levels. 
Water levels rise when recharge exceeds discharge and decline when discharge exceeds recharge. Short- 
term fluctuations of water levels in some wells are caused by earthquakes, changes in barometric pnssure, 
and tidal fluctuations. 
Figure 8 shows fluctuations in one well (Ro 18) in till and two wells (Ro 77 and Ro 99) in the 
Newark group, discharge of the Hackensack River at Rivervale, N. J., and precipitation at Spring Valley, 
N. Y. The hydrograph for well Ro 18 shows seasonal fluctuations in an area unaffected by pUlllping. 
The maximum annual range of fluctuations is about 12 feet. The graph shows that, in general, water 
levels begin to rise in late fall and reach a peak during the following spring. The lowest levels are rl
ached 
during the summer and early fall when evapotranspiration is greatest and natural discharge exceeds 
recharge. Departures from the normal seasonal pattern result from unusual precipitation. For eX;1',mple, 
the two peak levels in late 1955 were caused by hurricanes in August and by record-breaking precip
tation 
in October. 
Wells Ro 77 and Ro 99 show a long-term range in fluctuations of about 30 and 40 feet, respectively. 
The fluctuations in both wells are affected by pumping from wells. Well Ro 77 is at the south end of the 
Lederle Laboratories plant in Pearl River where an average of about 1 mgd is pumped from the Newark 
group. The graph for well Ro 77, which is based on records from an automatic water-level recorder, 
shows that the rise in water level which starts in the spring generally reaches a peak in May. Water 
levels normally decline during the summer and fall, stabilize for a few months in the winter, and then 
rise in the following spring. The failure of the water levels to recover to normal peak levels in 1954 is 
a reflection of unusually heavy and continuous pumping during that year. In 1955, a reduction in pump- 
age together with above-normal rainfall resulted in an essentially continuous rise of water levels through- 
out the year. 
The hydrograph for Ro 99 at the Summit Park Sanitorium is based in part on records from an 
automatic water-level recorder and in part on periodic measurements. The graph shows a wide range 
in seasonal fluctuation. The water level generally declines about 40 feet during the summer llJ onths. 
On September 2, 1959, the water level declined to a record low of 140 feet below the land surface. Part 
of the decline is natural and part probably reflects large withdrawals from the Newark group. The 
peak level in 1958 was slightly below the peak level of the previous years of record. 


28 



2 


30 
40 Ro 77! 350feet deep, 
Newark group, 
Pearl River, N. Y. 


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Figure a.-Fluctuations of water levels in wells Ro la, Ro 77, and Ro 99, monthly mean discharge of Hackensack 
River at Rivervale, N. J., and monthly precipitation at Spring Valley, N. Y. 


The graph of the monthly mean discharge for the Hackensack River at Rivervale, N. J., has a 
pattern similar to those of the ground-water hydrographs. The peak discharge in the spring results 
from high overland runoff and from large ground-water discharge, The decrease in discharge eluring 
the summer months is the result of losses by evapotranspiration and decreases in ground-water discl'<'\,rge. 
Available water-level records are too short to show long-term trends and, except for the l'ydro- 
graphs for wells Ro 18, Ro 77, and Ro 99 (fig. 8), information on changes in water levels is very s--:>arse. 
Among the important elements that are lacking are precise knowledge of static water levels in the early 
years before heavy pumping began and measurements made during periodic shutdowns since that time. 
The relatively few data collected during this investigation that relate to the problem are summarized in 
table 6. Almost all the records are based on air-line measurements reported by owners and well dJ'
llers. 
For some wells the early records represent initial water-level measurements. For others, the earliest 
records begin some years after pumping was started. In using the measurements, it should be kl
pt in 
mind that some of the measurements represent incomplete recoveries as the static water level me:! sured 
in a well that was in operation a short time before measurement is influenced by the amount and duration 
of pumping prior to shutdown, and by pumping in nearby wells. Also, changes in seasonal withdrawals 
and the amount of precipitation should be taken into account in interpreting differences in water levels 
from year to year. 


29 



Table 6.-Comparison of reported water levels in selected wells in the 
Newark group, Rockland County, N. Y. 


Depth to 
Well Locality water Date of Remarks 
no. (feet) measurement 
Ro 25 Orangeburg 12 September 1951 Water level in nearby well reported to 
be 15 to 20 feet below land surface 
about 1903. 
Ro 50 Orangeburg 63.5 July 1939 
59 August 1951 
Ro 51 Orangeburg 49.5 July 1939 
69 August 1951 
Ro 52 Orangeburg 38.5 July 1939 
52 August 1951 
Ro 53 Orangeburg 69.5 July 1939 
70 August 1951 
Ro 54 Orangeburg 38.5 July 1939 
38 August 1951 
Ro 55 Orangeburg 37 July 1939 
36 August 1951 
Ro 56 Orangeburg 35 July 1939 
46.5 August 1951 
Ro 58 Orange burg 30 July 1939 
26 August 1951 
Ro 60 Orange burg flows 1936 Driller reports flow of 10 gpm at height 
46 July 1939 of 10 feet above land surface iIJ 1936. 
23 August 1951 
Ro 61 Orangeburg flows July 1939 
10.5 August 1951 
Ro 62 Orangeburg 6 1938 
15 July 1939 
26.5 August 1951 
Ro 63 Orangeburg flows November 18, 1936 Driller reported flow of 25 gpm at 
flows July 1939 height of 10 feet above land furface 
19 August 1951 in 1936. 


30 



Table 6.-Comparison of reported water levels in selected wells in the 
Newark group, Rockland County, N. Y.-(Continued) 


Depth to 
Well Locality water Date of Remarks 
no. (feet) measurement 
Ro 65 Pearl River 25 1937 
12 June 6, 1952 
35 April 1957 
Ro 67 Pearl River 30 1939 
20 May 26, 1952 
30 April 1957 
Ro 68 Pearl River 48 April 1947 
49 June 6, 1952 
50 April 1957 
Ro 71 Pearl River flows 1941 
° December 1946 
flows April 1957 
Ro 72 Pearl River 33.5 1942 
53 August 1950 
Ro 74 Pearl River 10 November 1950 
15 May 26, 1952 
14 April 1957 
- 
Ro 77 Pearl River 51 May 31, 1952 See hydrograph, fig. 8. 
44 May 31, 1956 
.48 April 21, 1957 
Ro 81 Spring Valley 42 January 30, 1949 1949 measurement after 1 day of shut- 
15 October 11, 1954 down; 1954 measurement after 13 
days of shutdown. 
Ro 82 Spring Valley 63 January 30, 1949 1949 measurement after 1 day of shut- 
36 October 11, 1954 down; 1954 measurement after 13 
days of shutdown. 
Ro 83 Spring Valley 59 January 30, 1949 do. 
28 October 11, 1954 
Ro 84 Spring Valley 66 January 30, 1949 do. 
38 October 11, 1954 
Ro 85 Spring Valley 63 January 30, 1949 do. 
18 October 11, 1954 


31 



Table 6.-Comparison of reported water levels in selected wells in the 
Newark group, Rockland County, N. Y. -(Continued) 


Depth to 
Well Locality water Date of Remarks 
no. (feet) measurement 
Ro 86 Spring Valley 52 1948 
32 October 11, 1954 
Ro 90 N anuet 24 June 8, 1942 
29 May 19, 1957 
23 1958 
Ro 91 N anuet 26.5 1942 
29 May 19, 1957 
22 1958 
Ro 422 N anuet 5 April 7, 1954 
4 April 1957 
Ro 92 Blauvelt 49 January 17, 1947 
43 April 8, 1947 
58 March 27, 1955 
Ro 93 Tappan 83 October 5, 1953 
90 October 16, 1954 
81 May 19, 1957 
Ro 94 New Hempstead 15 December 4, 1950 
26 May 6, 1954 
22 May 19, 1957 
Ro 295 New Hempstead 10 May 5, 1954 
8 June 6, 1954 
10 May 19, 1957 
Ro 96 Monsey 80 1941 
83 April 1, 1956 
85 January 19, 1957 
Ro 97 Monsey 55 1950 
49 January 19, 1957 
Ro 98 Summit Park 46.5 December 20, 1917 
55.5 August 3, 1950 
Ro 99 Summit Park 71 May 15, 1954 See hydrograph, fig. 8. 
69 May 15, 1955 
71 May 11, 1958 


32 



Table 6.-Comparison of reported water levels in selected wells in the 
Newark group, Rockland County, N. Y.-(C
ntinued) 


Depth to' 
Well Lacality wa tel' Date af Remarks 
nO'. (feet) measurement 
Ra 130 Viala flaws 1942 
12 August 27, 1956 
flaws 1958 
Ra 289 Bardania 7 Octaber 23, 1953 
4 June 5, 1955 
5 May 19, 1957 
Ra 291 Germands 21 July 27, 1953 
12 June 5, 1955 
20 January 27, 1958 


Same lang-term declines af water levels are suggested by the data far a few wells in the sauth- 
eastern part af the caunty but pumpage has alsO' increased in that area. Therefare, cansiderably mare 
study and a langeI' periad af recard are needed to' appraise the amaunt and significance af the dec 1 jnes. 
In particular, an intensive search shauld be made far reliable water-level measurements in early years. 
AlsO' periadic water-level readings shauld be made in an expanded netwark af abservatian wells in the 
Newark graup in bath lightly and heavily pumped areas. 


Quality of Water 
The chemical quality af graund water is cantralled chiefly by (1) the quality af the saurce water 
(2) the campasitian af the racks thraugh which the water maves, (3) the length af time the water is in 
cantact with the racks, and (4) the temperature and pressure changes that accur in the water as it ill0ves 
thraugh the racks and is withdrawn thraugh wells. As mast af the graund water in Rackland Ca'mty 
is derived fram precipitatian which cantains anly minute am aunts af dissalved substances, mast O'j." the 
chemical canstituents in the water must be accaunted far chiefly by chemical and physical reactians 
between the water and the racks thraugh which it maves. In a few places the chemical quality af ground 
water reflects the quality af nearby surface water drawn intO' the aquifers by pumping. 
The chemical quality af surface water is related to' (1) the quality af the graund-water seepage, 
(2) the quality af the averland runaff, (3) the campasitian af the sail and racks aver which the styeam 
and its tributaries flaw, and (4) the temperature af the water. 
The many cambinatians af influences that affect the quality af graund and surface water are 
indicated by the differences in the cancentratians af the canstituents in the waters whase chemical analyses 
are listed in table 7. Mast af the analyses were made by the New Yark State Department af Health 
in cannectian with periadic sampling af the water used far public supplies, schaals, institutians, and 
camps. Same af the analyses were made by private labarataries, and a small number were made by' the 
Quality af Water Branch af the U. S. Gealagical Survey. Far same wells, several analyses mac1e at 
different times are given. The sampling paints far waters whase analyses are listed in table 7 are plotted 
an figure 9 alang with hardness, alkalinity, and pH af the water. 


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38 



CHEMICAL QUALITY OF WATER IN RELATION TO USE AND SOURCE 
The natural ground waters and surface waters of Rockland County have a relatively low mineral 
content and are suitable for most domestic and industrial uses without treatment, except for water from 
and near the Hudson River. Table 8 summarizes the character of the fresh and contaminated 'Vrater 


/ 
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EXPLANATION 


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Sampling points 


{1 


W.II Spring Stream ar La.. 
o ? Locot.on + 
Ro 289 Number de

t

r.on(D) 
85 Totol hardness, inppm 69 
58 AlkalinitY.ln ppm 54 
6.6 pH 6.9 
SOurce of water 


J' 


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o 


Precambflon rock, 


Newark group 


<D 


e 
Palisade diabase 


SC ALE 


Cambrian and OrdovIcian rocles 


. 
UnconsolIdated deposIts 


3 Miles 


Note: For more doto on chemical onalYles I,ee lable 7. 


Figure 9.-Comparison of hardness, alkalinity, and pH of ground water and surface water 
at selected sampling points in Rockland County, N. Y. 


39 



Table S.-Summary of chemical analyses of ground water and surface water, 
Rockland County, N. Y. 


(In parts per million, except pH) 


Precambrian Palisade Newark Stratified SUrfacl
 
rocks diabase group drift water 
Num- Num- Num- Num- Num- 
Median ber Median ber Median ber Median ber Median ber 
and of and of and of and of and of 
range analy- range analy- range analy- range analy- range analy- 
ses ses ses ses ses 
- -- 
Silica (Si0 2 ) ...... . 2 61 1 11 33 20 6 8.3 3 
22-35 ...... . 1.2-22 11-28 6.6-19 
Iron (Fe) 0.2 7 0.3 3 .06 69 0.1 8 0.2 6 
0-0.2 0.1-1. 0 0.0-1.5 0.0-4.6 .1-.7 
Calcium (Ca) ...... . 2 5.8 1 35 33 45 6 34 3 
21-45 ...... . 11-53 22-72 32-64 
Magnesium (Mg) ...... . 2 0 1 10 32 11 6 11 3 
1.6-10 ...... . 1. 7-16. 0 66-71 8-66 
Sodium (N a) ...... . 2 52 1 9 3 13 4 ...... . 0 
7.4-8.2 ...... . 3.3-22.0 3.2-275 ...... . 
Potassium (K) ...... . 2 1 1 0.6 3 0.8 3 ...... . 0 
1. 9-2 . 9 ...... . 0.4-3.6 0.7-1.1 .,. .... 
Bicarbonate (HCO a ) 98 7 62 3 110 72 109 9 81 13 
48-175 27-123 21-198 31-212 32-137 
Sulfate (SO.) 19 5 ...... . 2 21 35 37 7 27 3 
13-40 23-24 5.9-64 20-190 25-42 
Chloride (CI) 6 7 6.8 3 8.2 77 9 11 12 16 
2-13 1. 4-8. 9 2-2,000 + 4-480 2-3,000+ 
Fluoride (F) 0.7 3 0.3 1 <.05 43 <.05 7 0.14 1 
.3-.9 ...... . .0-.20 .0-.2 ...... . 
Nitrate (NO a ) .01 4 ...... . 2 2.0 67 3.3 6 .7 11 
0.0-4.9 2.8-4.0 0.0-7.7 1. 2-11 0.02-3.5 
Dissolved solids 170 5 ...... . 2 170 35 215 8 ...... . 2 
130-195 177-204 52-276 + 119-1,321 178-1,697 
Hardness (as CaCO a ) 80 7 112 3 112 84 116 11 65 10 
48-154 15-140 18-256 56-450 18-327 
Alkalinity (as CaCOa) 81 6 ...... . 2 93 83 70 10 64 14 
39-144 81-101 17-162 25-173 8-112 
pH 7.5 7 7.6 3 7.7 76 6.8 10 7.3 15 
6.9-7.8 7.1-9.6 5.4-8.4 6.2-7.9 6.7-8.6 


40 



from five principal sources and is based on the analyses listed in table 7 and other miscellaneous data. 
Some of these analyses have determinations for a few constituents only. These data show thr.t the 
median and even the maximum concentration of the chemical constituents of the fresh water from most 
sources are less than the maximum concentrations set by the U. S. Public Health Service (1946) for 
drinking water used on interstate carriers. 


Suggested maximum concentration for certain constituents in drinking water 
(After U. S. Public Health Service standards 1946; concentration in parts per million) 


Iron and manganese together 
Magnesium 
Sulfate 


0.3 
125 
250 


Chloride 
Fluoride 
Dissolved solids 


250 
1.5 
500 


On the average the water has moderate hardness (from 60 to 120 ppm), a low concentration of 
iron, and is slightly alkaline except for water in stratified drift and in a few places in the Newark group 
where it is acidic. The concentration of fluoride does not exceed 0.9 ppm and is generally less than 0.2 
ppm. At a few places, notably along the Hudson River, the water is very hard and contains excessive 
concentrations of iron and chloride, and has a high content of dissolved solids. 


Precambrian Rocks 


The water in the gneiss, granite, and schist of Precambrian age has a relatively low mineral cortent. 
The median dissolved solids content is 170 ppm and the median iron concentration is 0.2 ppm. The 
water is slightly alkaline. Although the median hardness is 80 ppm, the hardness of water in two wells, 
Ro 353 and Ro 207, is 140 and 154 ppm, respectively. The cause of the relatively high hardnes ('t the 
water from these wells is unknown. 


Newark Group 
On the average the water from the Newark group is moderately hard and alkaline. The median 
values of most of the chemical constituents do not differ greatly from those in the water from other units 
(table 8). However, the content of some constituents such as sulfate and dissolved solids, and the 
hardness of the water has a slightly larger range than the same constituents in uncontaminated water from 
the other water-bearing units. The content of dissolved solids of the samples analyzed ranges from 52 
to 276 ppm and the median value is 170 ppm. The median value of alkalinity is 93 ppm, slightly highe-r 
than that of water from other sources. The median concentration of iron is .06 ppm and the maximum 
concentration is 1.5 ppm. The low median concentration of iron seems unusual in view of the pre- 
dominantly red and brown color of the rocks which results mainly from the presence of iron oxid£ as a 
coating on the mineral grains. However, owing to the alkaline character of the water, apparently only 
a small amount of iron is dissolved. 
The hardness of the water in the Newark group is due to the presence of calcium and magnesium 
bicarbonate and sulfate. It ranges from 18 to 256 ppm and the median is 112 ppm. The excepti01l.ally 
low hardness of 18 ppm, at well Ro 256 (New City, fig. 9), suggests that the source of recharge is relatively 
close to the well. On the basis of the hardness and alkalinity, the water in the Newark group in the 
southern part of the county may be divided roughly into three belts of somewhat different chemical 
composition: (1) an eastern belt, (2) a central belt, and (3) a western belt. The differences in hardness 
and alkalinity of the water in these three belts can be attributed mainly to differences in the comporition 
of the rocks, the pattern of recharge and discharge of the water, and the source of the water. 
The eastern belt extends from the Hudson River to a short distance east of the Hackensack River 
and from the vicinity of Nyack south to the State line. The ground water in this area has a hardness 
between 108 and 210 ppm. The alkalinity is generally more than 80 ppm and is as high as 162 ppm. 
The eastern belt is underlain mainly by the Stockton formation which consists of arkosic sandstone 


41 



and shale composed mainly of quartz, feldspar, and muscovite. Nothing is known about th
 com- 
position of the rocks which would account for the relatively high hardness of the water. 
The central belt lies approximately between the Hackensack River and Pascack Brook. The 
ground water in most of this belt is relatively soft and has low alkalinity. The hardness, witl' a few 
exceptions in the southern part of the belt, is less than 100 ppm and ranges from 18 to about 14t) ppm. 
The alkalinity ranges from 15 to 98 ppm. Another unusual characteristic of the water is the acidity, 
as indicated by the low pH of many samples. In most of the water the pH ranges from 5.8 to 6.8; in a 
few samples the pH is as high as 7.8. The rocks in the central belt consist of quartzose sandstone and 
some interbedded shale; the low hardness of the water probably is due in part to the low carbonate 
content of these rocks. 
The western belt extends roughly from Pascack Brook to the Mahwah River. The hardness and 
alkalinity of most of the ,vater in this belt are relatively high. The hardness of the water ranges from 93 
to 256 ppm and the alkalinity ranges from 70 to 156 ppm. The rocks of the western belt are known to 
contain pebbles of limestone, especially near the Mahwah River where the Newark group consist
 of cal- 
careous conglomerates and sandstones. The abundance of limestone pebbles in the western belt doubt- 
less accounts in part for the high hardness of the water in that area. 
The chloride content of fresh water in the Newark group generally ranges from 2 to 38 ppm and 
the median concentration is 8 ppm (table 8). Concentrations in excess of 38 ppm suggest contamination 
by activities of man or by salt-water encroachment from the Hudson River. The principal activities of 
man that contribute to increases in chloride concentration in the water are: (1) accidental or inte'1tional 
disposal of sewage into the ground through leaky sewers, cesspools, or septic tanks, and (2) contamination 
from fertilizer. 
No evidence of increase in chloride content of the water from sewage disposal or the use of fertilizer 
was detected during this investigation. However, as the number of cesspools discharging wastes hto the 
ground is increasing, it is conceivable that in the future the water in some of the deposits may show 
increases in chloride and also in nitrate content, indicative of organic pollution. 
There is little evidence of salt-water encroachment in the Newark group along the shore of the 
Hudson River except at Grassy Point, about 2 miles north of Haverstraw, where test wells several hundred 
feet deep yielded water containing concentrations of chloride as high as 2,000 ppm. Other wellE" in the 
Newark group near the river, such as flowing well Ro 175 near the Hudson River at Haverstraw, yield 
fresh water. This suggests that under present pumping conditions the artesian pressure in the F ewark 
group at Haverstraw is sufficient to keep the salty water some distance offshore. 


Palisade Diabase 
Only one relatively comprehensive and several partial analyses were obtained for water in the 
diabase (table 7). These few analyses may neither truly represent the character nor the range of quality 
of the water. The analysis for well Ro 46 at West N yack shows that the water contains 177 ppm of 
dissolved solids, 0.1 ppm of iron, and has a hardness of only 15 ppm (the lowest determined for any 
source). In contrast to the low hardness of the water from Ro 46, the water from wells Ro 377 and Ro 
388 (near Haverstraw) has a hardness of 160 and 128 ppm, respectively. These wells are located close 
to the contact between the diabase and the Newark group and it is not certain whether the high hardness 
is characteristic of water in other parts of the diabase. 


Stratified Drift 
On the average the water in the stratified drift has a slightly higher mineral content than other 
waters (table 8). In those places where it is contaminated by salty water from the Hudson River it is, of 
course, highly mineralized. The median value of the dissolved solids content is 215 ppm and that of 
hardness is 116 ppm. The hardness ranges from about 56 to 450 ppm. The softer water is found in the 


42 



deposits of stratified drift in the crystalline highlands, for example, wells Ro 530 at Sloatsburg and Ro 190 
at Suffern. The harder water is found in the stratified drift underlain by rocks of the N ewark g
oup, 
for example, in well Ro 513, in the Mahwah River valley near Suffern; and Ro 287, at Piermont. VT ateI' 
having the highest hardness is found in stratified drift adjacent to the Hudson River. Water fror' the 
drift is slightly acidic, having a median pH of 6.8, in contrast to the generally alkaline character of ,vater 
from other sources. 


The most mineralized water in the county is the salty water in the stratified drift bordering the 
Hudson River: undoubtedly the deposits beneath the river also contain salty water. The analysf,
 for 
wells Ro 20, at Piermont, and Ro 344 at Haverstraw, indicate the general character of the contaminated 
water. At Ro 20 the water is pumped from a series of well points about 26 feet deep located about 300 
feet from the river. The water contains 1,320 ppm of dissolved solids, 190 ppm of sulfate, 4.6 ppm of 
iron, 480 ppm of chloride, and has a hardness of 450 ppm. At Ro 344 the water is pumped from a 
eries 
of well points 35 to 50 feet deep located near the edge of a tidal marsh at the mouth of Cedar Pond 
Brook. The water reportedly contains an average of about 350 ppm of chloride, and has a hardness of 
100 ppm. This compares closely with the composition of salty water from nearby Cedar Pond Brook 
(table 7). 


Detailed information is not available on the shape and position of the fresh water-salt water inter- 
face in the stratified drift along the Hudson River. The few data available suggest that the salt-yrater 
body is a wedge which thickens eastward tmvard the river. The toe of the wedge probably roughly 
parallels the shoreline, and lies a short distance off-shore in most places and a short distance inland in a 
few such as the Piermont and Haverstraw areas. 


Surface Water 
The water in the streams and lakes has a relatively low mineral content with the exception o
 the 
highly mineralized water in the Hudson River and the tidal portions of its tributaries. Analys ' 1s of 
samples of selected surface-water supplies are listed in table 7 and the location of the sampling point:
 are 
shown on figure 9. The hardness of uncontaminated water ranges from 18 ppm to 129 ppm and hts a 
median value of 65 ppm. The softest water is in lakes in the crystalline highlands at sampling points 
(N) and (S) (fig. 9). The hardest water is in the streams traversing areas underlain by the Newark 
group at sampling points (G), (D), and (E). The surface water is alkaline in most places and has a 
median pH of 7.3. 
The Hudson River is the most mineralized body of surface water in the county. The analysis 
given below, although made more than 50 years ago at Tarrytown, is indicative of the character of the 
salty river water in the vicinity of Rockland County. 


Chemical analysis of water from the Hudson River at Tarrytown, N. Y. 
(Analysis by New York City Department af Water Supply, Gas and Electricity. From Burr, Hering, and Freeman, 1904, p. 549. 
Concentration given in parts per million.) 


Date of Total Alka- Total 
collection Iron Nitrate Chloride hardness linity solids 
Aug. 25, 1903. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.40 0.05 780 327 49 1,697 


The composition of the river water varies from place to place and from time to time depending or the 
discharge of the river and on the stage of t.he tide. At times a wedge of salty water extends UJ: the 
river almost to Poughkeepsie, about 45 miles north of Nyack. The wedge migrates depending upor the 
relationship of river stage to tide level. The toe of the wedge is farthest north when the river is at low 
stage and is farthest south when the river is at high stage. The chloride content of 256 ppm, and the 


43 



hardness of 130 ppm of the water at sampling point (L) near the mouth of Cedar Pond Brook (fig. 9) is 
an example of contamination of a tributary stream by tidal inflow of salty Hudson River water. 
Unusual concentrations of manganese in the Hackensack River at West Nyack have been dis- 
cussed in a paper by Riddick and others (1958, p. 695). The authors point out that, whereas the man- 
ganese content of the water generally is negligible, at certain times of the year the concentration rises 
abruptly to about 5 ppm. On the basis of several years of record the authors determined that the in
rease 
in manganese content occurs in July or August following the first heavy rainfall after the temperat
lfe of 
the river water has reached about 76°F. It is not known whether the high manganese content results 
from biological, chemical, or biochemical reactions. However, the triggering action seems to be both 
thermal and hydraulic. 


COMPARISON OF THE CHEMICAL QUALITY OF GROUND WATER AND SURFACE WATER 
In the preceding sections it has been pointed out that ground water normally discharg€
 into 
streams and lakes and that at times the low flow of some streams consists entirely of ground-water dis- 
charge. It also has been shown that at some places withdrawal of ground water through wells near a 
stream or lake can induce infiltration of surface water into the aquifers. Interconnection of ground water 
and surface water is indicated by similarities in their chemical quality as shown by the data on the ch
mical 
quality of the water in the Hackensack and Ramapo River valleys. 
The valley of the Hackensack River is partly filled with stratified drift and is bordered by low 
till-covered hills of sandstone and shale of the Newark group. Evidence that the stream is suppor
ed by 
ground-water discharge consists of the similarity in chemical quality of both the ground water and river 
water (table 7 and fig. 9). For example, the hardness and alkalinity of water in well Ro 289 were 85 and 
58 ppm, respectively, and at sampling point (D) below Lake DeForest the hardness and alkalinity were 
69 and 54 ppm, respectively. Although the quality of the river water fluctuates through a small range 
during the year, analyses obtained from the Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co. show that the 
average hardness and alkalinity are comparable to the figures cited above. 
The Ramapo River valley is cut into Precambrian crystalline rocks and is partly filled with stra- 
tified drift and till. Figure 10 compares alkalinity, hardness, chloride, nitrate, and pH of wate
 from 
well Ro 190, screened in stratified drift, and water from the Ramapo River at Suffern from 1954 to 1956. 
The figure also shows the monthly mean discharge of the Ramapo at Mahwah, N. J., and precipitation at 
Spring Valley, N. Y. In general the mineral content in both the well water and the stream water is low. 
The ground water has a slightly higher mineral content than the river water and is acidic whereas the 
river water is alkaline. The mineral content of the river water generally increases when the river dis- 
charge is low and decreases when the discharge is high. The graphs also show small changes in the 
mineral content of the ground water. These changes probably result principally from variations in pre- 
cipitation, and changes in the rate of pumping from the well. It is not known to what extent changes in 
the quality of the nearby river water influence changes in the quality of the ground water. 


TEMPERATURE OF WATER 
Ground-water temperatures in wells in Rockland County are usually within a few degrees of the 
mean annual air temperature and fluctuate annually through a relatively narrow range. The temp€rature 
. of water in wells less than 100 feet deep may have a somewhat greater annual range than water in deeper 
wells as the temperature of water in shallow wells is influenced to a greater degree by variations in air 
temperature. In contrast the temperature of surface water is within a few degrees of the meaIJ daily 
air temperature and, thus, fluctuates annually through a relatively wide range. The range in 52 mff.\.sure- 
ments of ground-water temperature was from 42 to 58°F. and the median temperature was 52°F. Thus, 
the median temperature of the water closely approximates the mean annual air temperature of about 
51°F. 


44 



E 
CL 
Q, 
;;.,. 100 Explanatfon 

 90 
 Well Ro 190 
o 80 '''''', Romapo River 
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o N D J F M A M J J A SON D 
1956 


Figure 10.-Graphs showing fluctuations in chemical quality of water from well Ro 190 and from Ramapo 
River at Suffern, N. Y., discharge of Ramapo River, and precipitation, 1954-56. 


45 



The variation in temperature of water from 12 wells in the Newark group at Lederle Laboratories 
in Pearl River in 1952 and 1953 is shown in table 9. The range in temperature was from 50 to 56°F.; 
the median temperature was 52°F. The relatively high temperature of water reported from wells Ro 65, 
Ro 68, and Ro 69 probably was a result of leakage of warm water from nearby cooling ponds into the 
underlYing bedrock. 
The fluctuations of temperature of water in well Ro 190 and of the nearby Ramapo River are 
shown by the graphs of the month-end temperatures on figure 11. The month-end temperature of the well 
water ranged from about 51.5 to 53°F. between 1954 and 1957. The temperature of the river water 
ranged from about 32 to 74°F. during the same period. The range in temperature of the river water was 
about the same as the range of mean daily air temperature at Suffern. The graphs show that the peak 
temperature of the ground water is reached in the winter and spring whereas the peak temperature of 
the surface water is reached in the summer months. 


54 


I 
Well Ro 190,97 feet de
p, 
in strotified drift 


.. 
cull.: 

:: 53 


 
Ugo 


 52 


 


51 


Figure 11.-Graphs showing month-end temperature of water in well Ro 190 and Ramapo River at Suffern, N. Y., 1954-57. 


Recovery of Ground Waler 
More than 95 percent of the ground water used in Rockland County is obtained from we
ls; the 
remainder is from springs. Methods of well construction and several types of well pumps corrmonly 
used in Rockland County are described in the following paragraphs. Additional information on well 
drilling and well construction are given in reports by Bowman (1911), Bennison (1947), and Department 
of the Army (1957). 


WELLS AND PUMPS 
The type of well, its construction, and the selection of the pump chiefly depends on the type of 
aquifer, the depth to water, required Yield, and costs of construction. The wells in Rockland County are 
classified as drilled, driven, and dug. Drilled wells are the most numerous type. Most are constructed 
by the cable-tool (churn drill) method, although a few have been constructed in rock by the rotary 
method. In constructing drilled wells in bedrock, the loose unconsolidated deposits covering tlJ e rock 
are sealed off with a casing which generally is set 5 feet or more into the rock depending on its condition. 
The remainder of the well is left uncased to allow water to percolate into the well from openings in the 
rock. Domestic wells generally are 6 inches in diameter; public-supply wells are as much as 20 in
hes in 
diameter (table 17). In some deep wells casings of several sizes are installed in telescopic fashion with the 
largest size at the top. The space around the outside of the casing in public-supply wells commonly is 
filled with cement to prevent contaminated surface water from moving down the outside of the casing and 
into the well. 
Drilled wells in sand and gravel are cased to the water-bearing zone and are finished with a section 
of perforated or slotted casing or well screen, extending from a few feet to as much as 40 feet or more 
into the aquifer. The selection of the length and the slot size of the screen depends on the thickness and 


46 



Table 9.-Temperature of water in wells in the Newark group, Lederle Laboratories, 
Pearl River, N. Y., 1952-53 


(Data from Lederle Laboratories) 


Date of Temperature 
Well number measurement (OF.) 
Ro 65 Feb. 24, 1952 56 
Sept. 9, 1953 56 
Ro 66 Mar. 15, 1952 52 
Feb. 24, 1953 52 
Sept. 9, 1953 53 
Ro 67 Mar. 18, 1952 52 
Feb. 24, 1953 53 
Sept. 9, 1953 53 
Ro 68 Mar. 15, 1952 54 
Feb. 24, 1953 55 
Ro 69 Mar. 18, 1952 54 
Feb. 24, 1953 54 
Sept. 9, 1953 56 
Ro 71 Mar. 15, 1952 51 
Feb. 24, 1953 52 
Sept. 9, 1953 52 
Ro 73 Mar. 18, 1952 50 
Feb. 24, 1953 52 
Sept. 9, 1953 52 
Ro 74 Mar. 15, 1952 51 
Feb. 24, 1953 51 
Sept. 9, 1953 52 
Ro 75 Mar. 18, 1952 53 
Feb. 24, 1953 55 
Sept. 9, 1953 54 
Ro 76 Mar. 15, 1952 51 
Feb. 24, 1953 52 
Sept. 29, 1953 52 
Ro 78 Mar. 15, 1952 52 
Feb. 24, 1953 53 
Sept. 9, 1953 53 
Ro80 Feb. 24, 1953 51 
Sept. 9, 1953 51 


47 



grain size of the water-bearing material and the required yield. The connection between the casing and 
screen generally is sealed by a lead packer. An envelope of gravel is installed around some well screens to 
improve the yield. Gravel-packed wells have been constructed at Piermont and Suffern. In a fe'W wells 
terminating in coarse sand and gravel water is pumped through an open-end casing. 
Dug wells are usually 24 to 36 inches in diameter, but some are as much as 40 inches. Dug wells 
are constructed chiefly in shallow deposits of till and stratified drift; a few have been excavated in bed- 
rock. Such wells generally extend only a few feet below the water table owing to difficulties in excr.vating 
below that level. Dug wells may be walled with stone, timber, bricks, or concrete. In the early 1900's 
dug wells were much more extensively used than at present, owing to their low cost at that time and 
ease of construction. Many dug wells have been replaced by drilled wells which are less subject to con- 
tamination from surface pollution and are more likely to yield a permanent supply. 
Driven wells are installed in deposits of sand and fine gravel by driving a pipe having a screened 
drive point on the bottom to a suitable water-bearing zone at least 5 feet below the water table. The 
pipe and drive point commonly are 1
 to 2 inches in diameter and the drive-point and screen if 2 to 3 
feet in length. At two localities along the Hudson River groups of shallow drive-point wells (as many 
as 60 in a group) have been connected to common suction headers to supply water for industrial u"e. In 
a few places individual drive-point wells are used to supply homes. 
Marked improvement in the yield of wells constructed both in rock and in sand and gravel may 
be accomplished by various methods of development such as pumping, surging, bailing, and cJ'
mical 
treatment. Development of rock wells may open fractures which are filled with fine material derived 
from weathering of the rock or from rock flour produced by drilling. Figure 12 illustrates the marked 
improvement in yield characteristics of a well tapping the Newark group due to development. D
velop- 
ment of wells in sand and gravel causes fine material from the aquifer to pass through the screen and into 
the well where it can be pumped out, leaving relatively coarse material around the well screen. This 
improves the yield of the well by reducing loss of head as the water moves from the formation into the 
well. Encrustations of iron and manganese oxides on well screens also cause reduction in yielc 1 . Im- 
provement can be obtained in some cases by treating the screen with acid. 
The most suitable pump to install in a well depends on the amount of lift, the yield requir
d, and 
the type of well construction. If the pumping lift is within suction limit (less than about 25 feet), a 
suction-type or jet pump may be used. If the lift exceeds about 25 feet a force-type pump generally 
is used. 


SPRINGS 
Springs are natural outlets for ground-water discharge. Until the early 1900's springs were a 
common source of supply for domestic use in Rockland County but at the present time the use o
 water 
from springs is relatively small. Springs discharge from all types of consolidated rocks. In many 
places they issue from openings along joints in granite, gneiss, and diabase, and along joints and bedding 
planes in sandstone and shale of the Newark group. Springs are common on the steep slopes forned by 
outcrops of the Palisade diabase and the Newark group along the Hudson River and some issuo, along 
the contact between these units. Springs issue also from sandy zones in till, from deposits of stratified 
drift, and from openings along the contact between deposits of till and the underlying bedrock. Table 
10 gives data for 14 springs whose locations are shown on plate 1. Yields of 8 of these springs fo:'"' which 
records are available range from 1.5 to 20 gpm. The Yield of most of the springs varies widely from 
season to season. Some springs flow all year round with little variation in flow, some show a marked 
decline in discharge during the summer months, and others cease to flow entirely during dry periods. 
Most of the springs listed in table 10 are used for domestic supply. One spring is used for public supply, 
and another is used by a soft-drink bottling company. Measurements of the temperature of wat
r from 
a small number of springs show a range from 49 to 59°F. Most springs used as a source of supp
y have 
been improved by construction of a collecting basin to impound the water. The water commonly is 
diverted by gravity from the collecting basin through a pipe to a storage reservoir from where it can be 
pumped to points of use. 


48 



00 


Discharge,in gallons per minute 
200 300 400 


500 


o 


After development (tests made from 
April 8 to 11,1947) 


50 


. 


. 

. 

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clOO 

 
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Before development 
(tests made from 
March II to 14,194 7} 


150 


. 


200 


Figure 12.--Graphs showing comparison of yield before and after development of well Ro 92, at Blauvelt, N. Y. 
(After data from Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.) 


Utilization 
It is estimated that an average of about 16 mgd (million gallons per day) of water was pmroed 
from all sources in 1956. Of this amount about 10 mgd was obtained from ground-water sources and 6 
mgd was obtained from streams and lakes. The figures for consumption of ground water are based 
partly on metered and partly on estimated pumpage (tables 11, 12, and 14). On peak days during the 
summer months, total withdrawals of ground water are probably as high as 11 mgd. The withdrawals of 
ground water by geologic sources in 1956 are estimated to have been as follows: 8.6 mgd from the 
Newark group, 1.2 mgd from stratified drift, and 0.2 mgd from other rocks, mainly Precambrian crystal- 
line rocks. Figure 13 is a map showing the distribution of centers of heavy pumping. It shows that by 
far the largest withdrawals are from the Newark group in the southeastern part of the county and that 
most of the water is pumped by the Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co. The five principal 
categories of ground-water use and the metered and estimated pumpage in 1956 are tabulated below: 


Use 


Pumpage (mgd) 
1.2 
.4 
.3 
2.1 
6 


Domestic 
Institutional 
Agricultural 
Industrial 
Public Supply 


Total 


10 


49 




 
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Source of wate r 


o 


EXPLANATION 


N 


008 66e 


Pumpage scale (millions of gallons dally) 
(Pumpage Is proportional to the area of the circle) 


" 
/ 
" 
/ 
/ 

 
&. " ' 
Installation proposed / '-...,'-__--, .: 20 
or under construction / '\. .:

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 16 .:.....:0 21 
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6. Spring Valley w.w.a S.C. 
7. do. 
8. Lederle laboratories 
9. Spring Volley W.W. a S.C. 
10. do. 
II. do. 
12. do. 
13. do. 
14. do. 
15. do. 
16. Village of Suffern 
17. N.Y. Water Service Corp. - Thlell. 
18. Gornerville Holding Co. 
19. N.Y.State Rehabllitatian Hospital 
20. U. S. Gypsum 
21. Spring Valley W. W. a S.C.- Mahwah Valley 


'" 


Name of insta II otion 


I Spring Valley W. W. a S.C. 
2. do. 
3. 
4. 
5. 


da. 
Orangeburg Mfg. Ca. 
Rockland State Hospital 


TOWN 
OF 
STONY POINT 


0 18 


........... 


-, 


...... 
.<
.. 
TOW,......" 
OF.' 
R A 
.:APO 


,.0 


12 0 


TOWN 
OF 
CLARKSTOWN 



22 


110 


- Plermant 



 

 
CI) 
c::. 
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:t 


- Sparklll 
Tappan 


Blauvelt 
Pearl River 


\ 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
, 
" I 


Nanuet 


Bordanlo 


Germonds 


Installations proposed 
or under construction 


New City 
Spring Valley 
Mansey 
- New Hempstead 


22. spring Valley w.w.a S.C - Viola 
2.3. do. - Tollm an 


SCALE 


'.12 0 


2. "'LES 


Figure 13.-Map showing location and magnitude of he"vy withdrawals of ground water in Rockland County, N. Y., 1956. 


51 



Table 11.-Average daily withdrawals by months, in millions of gallons, from 
wells owned by six metered-water users, 1956 


Name of user Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Aver. 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
Lederle Laboratories 0.758 0.584 0.646 0.680 0.954 1. 005 1.203 1.178 1.127 1.077 1. 046 0.784 0.920 
- - - - - - - - - - - - 
New York State Re- 
habilitation Hospital .068 .072 .071 .097 .079 .089 .089 .085 .072 .078 .072 .089 .080 
- - - - - - - - - - - - 
Rockland State Hospital .153 .296 .170 .166 .203 .236 .264 .378 .213 .267 .256 .24;2 .237 
- - - - - - - - - - - - 
Spring Valley Water 
Works & Supply Co. 4.584 4.283 4.330 4.360 4.750 5.346 5.313 5.570 4.937 4.522 4.373 4.243 4.718 
- - - - - - - - - - 
Village of Suffern .618 .617 .557 .568 .596 .700 .655 .724 .658 .677 .723 .624 .643 
- - - - - - - - 
New York Water 
Service Corp. .421 .415 .422 .444 .466 .427 .403 .395 .387 .355 .343 .349 .402 


DOMESTIC, INSTITUTIONAL, AND AGRICULTURAL SUPPLIES 
It is estimated that about 80 percent of the total population of about 114,000 persons were served 
by public supplies in 1956. On the basis of an assumed per capita consumption of 50 gpd, the withdrn,wal 
for domestic use from private wells was about 1 .2 mgd. Most of the water was pumped from wells that 
tap the Newark group. Some homes are supplied by springs, but the total quantity of water obtajneds 
from springs is relatively small. 
There are about 70 schools, welfare homes, hospitals, and camps in the county which utilize well. 
and springs for water supply. It is estimated that an average of 0.4 mgd is pumped for institutional use 
The largest individual user is the Rockland State Hospital. Before 1951 as much as 1 .1 mgd was pumped 
from 14 wells tapping the Newark group to supply about 8,000 patients and employees. In 1956 the 
Hospital pumped about 0.25 mgd from its wells and purchased the remainder of its supply from the 
Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co. Another large hospital, the N ew York State Rehabilitation 
Hospital, near Haverstraw, pumped 80,000 gpd from the Newark group in 1956. 
Agriculture, formerly a major occupation in the county, has declined in importance in recent years 
owing to urbanization. As of 1958, it is estimated that there were about 280 farms in the county, f,nd a 
total of about 12,500 acres of land under cultivation (W. J. Clark, County Agricultural Agent, written 
communication). There also are a small nmnber of nurseries and dairies. Some farms use as much as 
5,000 gpd and those that practice irrigation (about 12 farms) may use as much as 50,000 to 100,000 gpd 
during the irrigation season. Mr. Clark estimates that the average consumption of water per farm 
may be as high as 1,200 gpd. On the basis of the above figures, it is estimated that the average con- 
sumption of water for agricultural use is on the order of 0.3 mgd. Most of the pumpage'is from ground- 
water sources, although it is reported that a few farms use water from ponds and streams. 


INDUSTRIAL SUPPLIES 
Industrial supplies are used primarily for cooling, air-conditioning, and processing. Self-supplied 
industrial pumpage from ground-water sources is about 2 mgd. In addition 3 mgd is purchased from 
private water companies and municipal systems, and at least 4 mgd is pumped directly from streams 
for cooling purposes. The two largest self-supplied industrial users of ground water are the Lf,derle 
Laboratories at Pearl River and the Orangeburg Manufacturing Corp. The Lederle system consi
ts of 
17 wells that tap the Newark group and a well-point system that taps stratified drift. Of these, only 12 
wells tapping the Newark group were in service as of 1958. Table 12 gives the average daily pumpage 


52 



by the Lederle LaboratorIes by months from 1948 to 1956. In 1956, the daily pumpage fron. wells 
averaged about 0.92 mgd and about 1 mgd was purchased from the Spring Valley Water Works and 
Supply Co. The Orangeburg Manufacturing Corp. has five wells that tap the Newark group, and 
reportedly pump an average of about 450,000 gpd. The Gail' Division of Continental Can Co., at 
Piermont, formerly obtained water from a well-point system (Ro 20) consisting of 60 driven P9intf. The 
system has not been used since 1953 owing to the high chloride content of the water. The ccmpany 
purchases some water from the Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co. and pumps several million 
gallons a day from Sparkill Creek. Kay-Fries Chemical Co. at Haverstraw, pumps about 75 gp'11 from 
11 shallow drive-point wells, purchases some water from the New Y ork Water Service Corp., and pumps 
about 0.9 mgd from Cedar Pond Brook for cooling purposes. The U. S. Gypsum Co. at Stony Point, 
pumps about 72,000 gpd from a well tapping the Newark group and purchases some water from the 
New York Water Service Corp. 


Table 12.-Average daily withdrawals by months, in millions of gallons, from wells 
owned by lederle laboratories, 1948-56 


Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Aver. 
- - - - - - 
1948 0.434 0.509 0.436 0.549 0.689 0.903 0.923 0.908 0.815 0.880 0.615 0.455 0.676 
- - - - - - - - - - - - 
1949 .423 .480 .565 .769 .829 .967 .913 .870 .819 .818 .650 .59,8 .725 
- - - - - - - - - - - - 
1950 .969 1. 060 1.170 1.318 1. 300 1.431 1. 291 1.290 1.243 1.120 1. 046 1.171 1.201 
- - - - - - - - - - - - 
1951 1.130 1.290 1.110 1.253 1.320 1. 475 1.531 1.550 1.430 1.585 1.508 1.607 1.399 
- - - - - - - - - - - - 
1952 1. 550 1.695 2.201 1.577 1.195 1. 642 1.662 1.455 1.641 1.757 1.561 1.011 1.571 
- - - - - - - - - - - - 
1953 1.165 1.617 1. 468 1. 228 1.487 1. 614 1.684 1.591 1. 602 1.495 1.172 1. 060 1. 432 
- - - - - - - - - - - - 
1954 .803 .908 .873 1.017 1.153 1.131 1. 007 1.095 .873 .927 .877 1. 009 .973 
- - - - -. - - - - - - - 
1955 .890 .888 1.126 .840 .903 1.059 1.134 1.172 1. 215 1. 369 .897 .532 1. 002 
- - - - - - - - - - - - 
1956 .758 .584 .646 .680 .954 1.005 1.203 1.178 1.127 1.077 1.046 .784 .920 


Many other industrial and commercial establishments have individual wells, but the total pump age 
by these is relatively small. Water pumped for air-conditioning at a few installations in Spring Valley 
and Nyack is returned to the ground through recharge wells so that there is essentially no net loss to the 
ground-water reservoir. At one installation, at well Ro 519 in Nyack, it is reported that a recharge well, 
237 feet deep in the Newark group, can return water at a rate of about 75 gpm. 


PUBLIC SUPPLIES 


There are 22 separate public-supply systems in Rockland County (1958) which draw water from 
surface and ground-water sources (table 13). These systems include small privately-owned systems (6 
or more houses), municipal systems, and private water companies. Of these systems, 3 utilize surface 
water, 2 utilize both surface water and ground water, and 17 utilize ground water exclusively. 
In 1956, the peak pumpage for public supply from ground-water sources was about 7 mgd and the 
average was about 6 mgd. Of the average withdrawals, about 5 mgd was obtained from the Pewark 
group, about 1.1 mgd from stratified drift, and about 0.12 mgd from crystalline rocks. Data for in- 
dividual public-supply wells are given in table 17 and the wells are plotted on plate 1. The pr;ncipal 
public-supply systems are described in the following sections. 


53 



Table 13.-Summary data on public-supply installations in Rockland County, N. Y. 


(Adapted in part from Bulletin 19, New York State Department of Health, 1954, 
and data from flies of Rockland County Department of Health) 


Esti- 
Popula- mat-;d 
Name of supply Type of supply Source of ground water tion cor- 
served sump1;ion 
(gpd) 
Bel-Ans Well Newark group 70 70,000 
Bernstein (Monsey) Well do. 20 . . . . . . . . 
Fairview Estates Well do. 60 . . . . . . . . 
Hillburn Streams and wells Granite gneiss 1,290 75,000 
Hillside Estates Well Newark group 100 8,000 
lona Island Doodletown Creek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 100,000 
Lake Lucille Well, spring Newark group 120 10,000 
Lakeside Park Well do. 24 . . . . . . . . 
New City (Solomon) Well do. 40 3,000 
New York Water Service Reservoirs on Cedar Stratified drift 18,000 1,500,000 
Corp. (Haverstraw) Pond Brook and 
Minisceongo 
Creek, and wells 
Nyack, Village of Hackensack River . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14,000 1,200,000 
Oakbrook Well Newark group 120 7,500 
Pothat Water Co. Lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,000 300,000 
Red Maple Homes (Monsey) 2 wells Newark group 30 3,000 
Spring Valley Water Works 24 wells Newark group (chiefly), 51,000 5,300,000 
and Supply Co. and stratified drift 
Suffern, Village of 2 wells Stratified drift 5,000 600,000 
Tompkins Lake Estates Well Granite gneiss 150 15,000 
Upper Nyack (Smith) Spring Newark group (?) 40 4,000 
Upper Nyack (Taylor) Well Newark group 170 8,000 
Upper Nyack Estates Well do. 65 3,500 
Valley Cottage (Bierds) Well do. 40 2,500 
Valley Cottage (Fulle) 2 wells do. 180 9,000 


New York Water Service Corporation 
The New York Water Service Corp. supplies about 18,000 people in the Haverstraw-Stony Foint 
area in northern Rockland County. About 60 percent of the supply is obtained from reservoirs on 
Minisceongo Creek and Cedar Pond Brook and about 40 percent from wells at Thiells. The gro'md- 
water system consists of 4 drilled wells about 25 feet deep, screened in stratified drift, and 2 installations 
referred to as the "Upper and Lower Springs." The latter probably are wells which consist of pipes 
driven about 6 to 20 feet below the bottom of rectangular concrete basins. As a means of supplementing 
the supply, a deep well, Ro 198, was drilled in the Newark group at West Haverstraw in 1958. The 
reported yield is about 140 gpm. In 1956, the company pumped an average of 1.1 mgd. Of this am')unt 
about 0.4 mgd was from ground-water sources and about 0.7 mgd from surface-water sources. 
Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Company 
The Spring V alley Water Works and Supply Co. maintains the largest public-supply system in 
the county. It supplies about 51,000 people and several large industries in the towns of Clarkstown, 


54 



Orangetown, and part of Ramapo. In 1956, the company had a total of 24 wells in service at 13 different 
stations (fig. 13). All the water from these systems was pumped from the Newark group exceT)t at 
Piermont where the water was pumped from stratified drift. Many of the wells have relatively high 
individual yields. For example, well Ro 295 tapping the Newark group at New Hempstead has been 
pumped at about 1,500 gpm and has the highest yield of any single well tapping the Newark grO'tp in 
the county. In 1959, the company installed well Ro 513 in the stratified drift in the Mahwah River 
valley. The Yield is reported to be 1,700 gpm. 
In 1957, the company pumped an average of about 5.3 mgd. About half of the total withdra.wals 
were made at the Spring Valley and New Hempstead well fields (table 14). The demand on the S,ring 
Valley Water Works and Supply Co. increased from about 0.56 mgd in 1920 to 5.3 mgd in 1957 (table 
15). To insure the fulfillment of future large demands for water, the company is investigating sites for 
new ground-water supplies and has constructed the Lake DeForest reservoir (pI. 1) on the Hackensack 
River in the southeastern part of the county. 


Table 14.-Average daily withdrawals, in millions of gallons, from individual well 
fields of the Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co., 1951-57 


Well number Well field 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 
Ro 289 Bardonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.131 0.190 0.110 0.126 
R092 Blauvelt 0.671 0.534 0.595 .477 .532 .546 .498 
Ro 291 Germonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .011 .030 .052 .088 
Ro 96, Ro 97 Monsey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 .155 
Ro 90, Ro 91 N anuet .769 .657 .757 .560 .268 .197 .212 
Ro 293 New City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 .192 .405 .360 
Ro 94, Ro 295 New Hempstead .225 .441 .500 .802 .790 .710 .898 
Ro 483 Pearl River . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .049 .167 .167 
Ro 287 Piermont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 .151 .233 
Ro 87 to Ro 89 Sparkill .205 .165 .274 .385 .364 .347 .317 
Ro 81 to Ro 86 Spring Valley 2.130 1.718 1. 753 1.545 1.706 1. 591 1.789 
Ro 294 Tallman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .001 
Ro 8, Ro 93 Tappan .376 .373 .418 .382 .494 .445 .403 


Village of Hillburn 
The chief source of supply is a reservoir on a small stream west of the village. A small supple- 
mentary supply is obtained from well Ro 197 (pI. 1) drilled to a depth of 300 feet in granite gneiss near 
the reservoir. \ 


Village of Suffern 
The village of Suffern obtains water from two wells (Ro 189 and Ro 190) screened in stratified drift 
in the valley of the Ramapo River. The wells are 12 inches in diameter and about 100 feet deep. One 
well is equipped with a 1,200 gpm capacity turbine pump and the other with a 600 gpm turbine p'tmp. 
Pumpage on peak days at Suffern exceeds o. 7 million gallons. In 1956, the pumpage averaged 2 bout 
0.6 mgd. The system serves about 5,000 people and a small number of industries. 
In addition to the large systems described above there are 15 small systems (table 13) supplYing 
from 20 to 180 persons. The water is pumped mostly from wells and a few springs. Total pum page 
from small public-supply systems is on the order of 150,000 gpd. 


55 



Table 15.-Average daily withdrawals, in millions of gallons, by the 
Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co., 1920-57 


Withdrawals Withdrawals Withdrawals 
Year (mgd) Year (mgd) Year (mgd) 
1920 0.56 1942 2.07 1950 3.93 
1925 .84 1943 2.15 1951 4.38 
1930 1.22 1944 2.37 1952 3.89 
1935 1.10 1945 2.35 1953 4.11 
1938 1.22 1946 2.92 1954 4.39 
1939 1.44 1947 3.18 1955 4.73 
1940 1.44 1948 3.33 1956 4.83 
1941 1.78 1949 3.42 1957 5.25 


FEASIBILITY OF ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF GROUND WATER 


Data collected during this investigation suggest that the present rate of ground-water withc 1 rawal 
of about 10 mgd can be increased substantially. The principal sources of additional supplies are (1) the 
stratified drift and (2) the Newark group. Only small supplies can be developed in the Palisade d:l1base 
and the Precambrian crystalline rocks. The stratified drift has a limited distribution but in places it is 
highly permeable and is hydraulically connected with streams and ponds. Thus drift-filled vall
ys in 
some areas are potential sources of large supplies, but specific sites for production wells should be selected 
on the basis of detailed studies. In most of the county stratified drift is missing and the Newark group 
is overlain by till of varying thickness and permeability, and in a few places the bedrock crops out. The 
productivity of wells tapping the Newark group depends on the number and size of openings in th
 rock 
and their interconnection with a good source of recharge. Doubtless, additional quantities of water 
could be developed from the Newark group especially in areas where new wells will produce little or no 
drawdown in existing wells. The water-yielding potentiality of the rocks of the Newark group if' sum- 
marized by areas in the following paragraphs. 
The southeastern part of the county, west of the exposure of Palisade diabase (pI. 2) is now the 
area of heaviest pumping in the county. Most of the water is pumped for public supply and industrial 
use from the Newark group and some from strat.ified drift. Some additional withdrawals can be made 
from the Newark group but lowering of water levels, owing to mutual interference between pUllping 
wells, will become more critical as new wells are drilled and as withdrawals are increased at eyisting 
centers of pumping. Deposits of stratified sand and gravel in parts of the valley of Sparkill Creek rep- 
resent a possible source of additional supply, especially if wells are situated so as to induce infiltration 
from the creek. Quantitative estimates of availability of water would require some additional knmvledge 
of the character of the deposits and of the discharge of the creek. 
A relatively small amount of water is pumped from the Newark group in the area between Spring 
Valley and the Mahwah River valley. Also, in the area are many springs and a small number of f owing 
wells which suggest that the aquifer contains a surplus of water and that a substantial amount of recharge 
is being lost through natural discharge. Well Ro 130 at Viola yields mOl'e than 400 gpm. Additional 


56 



withdrawals can be made but exploratory holes would be needed to locate suitable sites for large-capacity 
wells. The stratified drift in the Mahwah River valley in western Rockland County is largely untapped. 
In 1959, well Ro 513, drilled in the valley a short distance northeast of the village of Suffern, Yielded a bout 
1,700 gpm. Additional test drilling would be required to determine the thickness and permeability cf the 
stratified drift in other parts of the valley. Wells dlilled through the stratified drift and into the under- 
lYing Newark group near the Mahwah River also may yield substantial supplies owing to the possi1

lity 
of recharge to the Newark group by (1) downward percolation of water from the stratified drift and from 
the river during pumping and (2) storage of water along openings in the rocks in the border fault zone. 
Some additional supplies could be developed from the northern part of the Newark group in the 
area north of the prominent westerly bend in the Palisade diabase exposure (pI. 2), especially wherl
 the 
rocks are overlain by permeable stratified drift. Some flowing wells of moderately high yield are situated 
near the Hudson River but a substantial increase in pumping from wells near the river may cause salty 
river water to move toward the centers of pumping and perhaps ultimately contaminate the "'Tells. 
Periodic analysis of the chloride content of the well water is required to detect signs of progressiv') en- 
croachment of the salty water. 
In the extreme western part of the county the largest potential source of additional ground-'Fater 
is the stratified drift in the Ramapo River valley. The deposits in this area are as much as 100 feet 
thick and in some places are composed almost entirely of sand and gravel. The yield of the stratified 
deposits in the Ramapo River valley not only is a function of the amount of direct recharge from pre- 
cipitation but also of the large discharge of the Ramapo River that could be tapped through induced 
infiltration. Exploratory borings would be necessary to find the thickest and most permeable zon
s in 
the stratified drift. The highly productive wells at the village of Suffern (Ro 189 and Ro 190), at the 
New York State Thruway rest station at Sloatsburg (Ro 530), and in the Mahwah River valley nort]'
ast 
of Suffern (Ro 513) are evidence of the high yield of these deposits. 
In general, the Precambrian crystaHine rocks and the Cambrian and Ordovician rocks ir the 
northern and northwestern parts of the county have low storage capacities and are not a source of large 
supplies. In a few places, however, where the fractures in the rock are connected to sources of recl'arge 
from streams and lakes, moderately large supplies may be obtained. The extent and character Of the 
small bodies of stratified drift in the crystaHine highlands are not well known. In many places these 
deposits may be thin or consist largely of silt and clay. However, where the stratified drift is COll}: ased 
of sand and gravel and is hydraulically connected to a stream or lake, it may be a source of moderate 
supplies to wells or it may act as a source of recharge for the underlying bedrock. 


PRESENT AND FUTURE PROBLEMS 
Although steps have been taken to substantially increase the county's water supplies through 
storage of streamflow in the newly constructed Lake DeForest reservoir on the Hackensack River (pI. 1), 
ground water will continue to be an important source of supply. Among the many advantages of gr')und 
water are (1) relatively low cost per installation, (2) little or no treatment of the water is required for 
most uses, and (3) small fluctuations in temperature and chemical quality. 
The rapid growth in population and the continually increasing use of ground water sugges
 the 
need for additional study of the following problems: 
1. Safe development of the Newark group.-No accurate estimates are available of the percentage 
of the rainfall that reaches the zone of saturation in the Newark group nor of the amount of water tl'at is 
lost through natural discharge. Such estimates require more data on porosity and permeability 0+ the 
rocks, rainfall, stream flow, and losses due to evaporation and transpiration. 
2. Mutual interference between centers of heavy pumping.-A study of this problem requires an 
expanded network of water-level observation wells. At the present time only two wells in the N e
ark 
group are measured periodically. 


57 



3. Contamination of the ground water.-Increasing quantities of waste water from cesspool"" and 
septic tanks are being returned to the ground. Some increase in chloride, nitrate, and detergent content 
of the water may occur in densely populated areas. In parts of southern Long Island, for example, 
detergents in the water in the shallow aquifer have reached such concentrations in a few areas thr,t the 
taste and appearance of the water have been significantly affected. The present data do not indicate 
any widespread serious problems resulting from this type of contamination in Rockland County but a 
continuous check on the quality of the water from public-supply wells and also from private w
lls is 
essential. A study of contamination problems requires not only periodic chemical and bacteriohgical 
analyses of many water samples but also detailed knowledge of the direction and rate of movement of 
ground water. 
4. Effect of new construction, paving of streets, and sewer'ing on recharge.-No quantative estimates 
are available but these activities generally cause some diminution in the natural recharge which m
y be 
reflected ultimately by a decline in water levels. An expanded water-level observation program would 
be needed to evaluate such a decline. 
5. Artificial recharge.-Surplus surface water returned through wells and recharge basins m
,y be 
a means of replenishing parts of the Newark group which become depleted through overpumping. These 
methods have been used successfully for sand and gravel aquifers elsewhere but little is known of the 
ability of the Newark group to receive large amounts of recharge in a short time. Probably a pilot 
experiment in a small area or in an existing well field might provide some of the answers needed to de- 
termine the feasibility of artificial recharge in Rockland County. 


REFERENCES CITED 


Bennison, E. W., 1947, Ground Water, its development, uses, and conservation: St. Paul, Minn., E. E. 
Johnson, Inc. 
Berkey, C. P., 1911, Geology of the New York City Aqueduct: New York State Mus. Bull. 146. 
, and Rice, Marion, 1921, Geology of the West Point quadrangle: New York State Mus. Bull. 
225, 226. 
 
Bowman, Isaiah, 1911, Well dn"lling methods: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 257. 
Burr, W. H., Hering, Rudolph, and Freeman, J. R., 1904, Report of the commission on additional water 
supply for the City of New York. 
Dana, J. D., 1884, Note on the Cortlandt and Stony Point hornblendic and aug'l"tic rock: Am. Jour. Sci., 3rd 
ser., v. 28, p. 384-386. 
Darton, N. H., 1890, The relation of the traps of the Newark system in the New Jersey region: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Bull. 67. 
Department of the Army, 1957, Wells: Tech. Manual 5-297, 264 p. 
Fenneman, N. M., 1938, Physiography of the eastern United States: New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co,
 Inc. 
Fairchild, H. L., 1919, Pleistocene marine submergence of the Hudson, Champlain and St. Lawrence Vclleys: 
New York State Mus. Bull. 209, 210. 
Hartnagel, C. A., 1912, Class'ification of the geologic formations of the State of New York: New York State 
Mus. Handbook 19 (old series). 
Kummel, H. B., 1899, The Newark or New Red Sandstone rocks of Rockland County, N. Y.: 18th Ann. 
Rept. New York State Geologist, p. 9-50. 
----,1940, The geology of New Jersey: New Jersey Geol. Survey Bull. 50. 


58 



Krynine, P. D., 1950, Petrology, stratigraphy, and origin of the Triassic sedimentary rocks of Connecticut: 
Connecticut State Geol. and N at. Rist. Survey Bull. no. 73. 
Lowe, K. E., 1950, The Storm King gran:ite at Bear Mountain, N. Y.: Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 61, 
p. 137-190. 
, and others, 1958, Field guidebook: 30th Ann. Meeting, New York State Geol. Assoc., 
Peekskill, N. Y. 
, 1959, Structure of the Palisades 'intrusion at Haverstraw and West Nyack, N. Y.: N. Y. 
Acad. Sci. Annals, v. 80, art. 4, p. 1127-1139. 
Meinzer, O. E., 1923, The occurrence of ground water in the United States with a discussion of principles: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 489, 321 p. 
Peet, C. E., 1904, Gladal and post-glacial history of the Hudson and Charnplain Yalleys: Jour. Geolo:!y, v. 
12, no. 5, p. 415-469 and no. 7, p. 617-660. 
Reeds, C. A., 1933, The varved clays and other glacial features in the vicinity of New York City: Internat. 
Geol. Cong., 16th, Guidebook 9, p. 52-63. 
Riddick, T. M., Lindsay, N. L., and Tomassi, Antonio, 1958, Iron and manganese in water supplt"es: 
Amer. Water Works Assoc. Jour., v. 50, no. 5, p. 688-696. 
Thorn pson, H. D., 1959, The Palz'sades ridge in Rockland County, N. Y.: N. Y. Acad. Sci. Annals, v. 80, 
art. 4, p. 1106-1125. 
U. S. Public Health Service, 1946, Drinking water standards: Public Health Repts., v. 61, p. 371-384-. 
Van Duyne, Cornelius, Bromley, J. H., and McLendon, W. E., 1922, Soil Survey of the White Plains area, 
N. Y.: U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Chemistry and Soils, ser. 1919. 
Woodworth, J. B., 1905, Ancient water levels of the Champlain and Hudson valleys: New York State Mus. 
Bull. 84. 


Worzel, J. L., 1951, Seis',nic profile across the Hudson River near Nyack, N. Y. [Abs.]: Geophysics, v. 16, no. 
3, p. 563. 
----, and Drake, C. I.J., 1959, Structure section across the Hudson River at Nyack, N. Y., from 
seismic observations: N. Y. Acad. Sci. Annals, p. 1092-1105. 


59 



- Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County, N. Y. 


(Location coordinates are explained in the section entitled "Well-location and -numbering system." 
All logs from drillers unless otherwise indicated. Correlation of formations are by the author.) 


Ro 1; 16X, 3.2S, 0.8W; New York Water Service Corp.; well No.6; Thiells; drilled by C. W. Lauman 
& Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface about 300 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Clay, sand; rocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, hardpacked, fine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, hardpacked, fine; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, very coarse, gray; coarse gravel; stones; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, very coarse; streaks of sandy clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse; coarse gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Screen setting: 20 to 26 feet. 
Yield: 220 gpm, with drawdown of 6 feet, January 1949. 


Thickness De.pth 
(feet) (fE.
t) 
1 1 
3 4 
1 5 
6 11 
5 16 
4 20 
4 24 
2 26 


Ro 8; 16X, 15.3S, 2.2E; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; well No. 16; Tappan; dr
lled 
by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface 203.5 feet. 
Thickness DE.nth 
(feet) (fE:
t) 


Recent: 
Loam............................. ............................ 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Sand, gray-brown and gravel; abundance of red clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel and sand, coarse, brown; light brown clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse, gray-brown; chocolate-brown clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sand, coarse; grayish-brown; dark brown shale; chocolate-brown clay.. 
Shale, soft, brown; chocolate-brown clay; some grayish-white medium 
sandstolle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel and sand, fine to coarse, grayish-white; abundance of chocolate- 
brown clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel and sand, medium to coarse, gray; very fine soft reddish-brown 
sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to coarse, brown; some streaks of very soft fine white 
sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand3tone, fine, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to coarse, grayish-brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, hard, brown; streaks of brown clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to medium, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium to coarse, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to medium, brown; some streaks of brown clay and 
grayish-white shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to medium, brown; some streaks of brown clay. . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium to coarse, light brown; some streaks of brown clay. 
Shale, soft, gray-brown; and brown clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


60 


2 2 
43 45 
41 86 
7 93 
4- 97 
3 100 
12 112 
5 117 
27 144 
29 173 
5 178 
9 187 
18 215 
30 235 
70 315 
13 318 
13 331 
4 335 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 


Sandstone, streaks of fine and medium, grayish-white; and grayish- 
brown clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to coarse, light brown and pinkish; some streaks of 
grayish-brown clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, light brown; some streaks of fine soft white sand 
and clay, and soft brown shale... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to coarse, light brown; some streaks of soft brown shale 
and grayish-brown clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium to coarse, light brown; some streaks of soft red 
shale and grayish-white clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium to coarse, pinkish; some streaks of grayish-brown 
clay... .... .. .... ...... . . ...... ........ ...... ... . .......... . 
Sandstone, medium to coarse, grayish-brown and reddish-brown; some 
streaks of red shale and red clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red; some streaks of grayish-brown sandstone and blue clay. . . . 
Sandstone, medium to coarse, brown; some streaks of brown clay. . . . 
Yield: 350 gpm, 1948. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
6 341 
52 393 
17 410 
13 423 
20 443 
17 460 
10 470 
15 485 
15 500 


Ro 11; 16X, 16.2S, 3.3E; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; Oak Tree Road test well; 
Tappan; drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; log furnished by Leggette, Brf,shears, 
and Graham; altitude of land surface about 25 feet. 


Recent: 
Loam, black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Sand, fine, gray; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium, gray; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red; fine sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Clay, red; sand and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red; and sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red; sand and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red and white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red, and red shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red and white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; and shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; and soft shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

andstone, red; seams of white clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; and red shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; and red shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
. 


61 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
3 5 
11 16 
35 51 
19 70 
5 75 
11 86 
19 105 
24 129 
15 144 
17 161 
29 190 
7 197 
4 211 
7 218 
18 236 
6 242 
23 265 
6 271 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness 
(feet) . 
15 
14 


Sandstone, red; and red shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red (flows, 3 feet above land surface) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 13 gpm, with drawdown of 31 feet, September 1956. 


DE'nth 
(fE'et) 
2P() 
300 


Ro 16; 16X, 2.3S, 0.6E; New York State Rehabilitation Hospital; West Haverstraw; drillec 1 by 
Rinbrand Well Drilling Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface about 170 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Till : 
Hardpan and boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand........................................................ . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red (water entered well between 250 and 350 feet). . . . . . . 
Yield: 200 gpm, 1932. 


Thickness DE'nth 
(feet) (fE'et) 
60 60 
25 85 
265 350 


Ro 63; 16X, 12.4S: 1.5E; Rockland State Hospital; well No. 16; Orangeburg; drilled by Rinbr<:\.nd 
Well Drilling Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface 88 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Clay........................................................ . 
Till: 
Hardpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand........................................................ . 
Hardpall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone and shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 150 gpm, with drawdown of about 120 feet, October 1936. 


Thickness D
t>th 
(feet) (foot) 
20 20 
30 50 
15 65 
7 72 
152 224 


Ro 72; 16X, 12.1S, 1.2W; Lederle Laboratories; well H; Pearl River; drilled by Layne-New York 
Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface 248 feet; log supplied by M. E. Johnson. 


Pleistocene: 
No record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, clayey, yellow; sand and gravel; some beds of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red; conglomeratic sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstolle, pink. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, pink; some conglomerate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, pink; some shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Conglomerate, sandstone, and shale; pink; interbedded. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
. 


62 


Thickness D
t>th 
(feet) (f('et) 
6 6 
6 12 
74 86 
6 92 
45 137 
63 200 
19 219 
16 235 
56 2nl 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Ro 86; 16X, 9.1S, 2.4W; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; well No.. 17; Spring valley; 
drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface 447 feet. 
Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Loam, sandy, brown; considerable gravel..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Hardpan; some red and gray clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, fine, hard, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, soft, red, spongy; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. 
Sandstone, fine, hard, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, hard, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Fissure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 600 gpm, with drawdown of 65 feet, 1948. 
Ro 89; 16X, 15.3S, 3.3E; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; well No. 12; Sparkill; drilled 
by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface 58 feet. 


Recent: 
Loam............ ................ ............ .... ....... ...... 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift and till(?): 
Hardpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, sandy, brownish-green.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel, sandy (water at 15 feet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine; gravel; brown clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, sandy, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, brown.... . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 
Till : 
Clay and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay; gravel; stones, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red; brown clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, light brown (water at 92 feet, 6-inch fissure) . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, red (crevices at 100 feet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium, shaley, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, gray; fine gravel; shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium, shaley, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red and gray; some shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, brown, shaley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine; brown; and gray shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


63 


30 30 
9 39 
11 50 
5 55 
21 76 
64 140 
5 145 
74 219 
2 221 
84 305 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
1 1 
2 3 
7 10 
5 15 
5 20 
10 30 
10 40 
10 50 
27 77 
3 80 
5 85 
5 90 
13 103 
9 112 
28 140 
10 150 
20 170 
10 180 
22 202 
18 220 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness 
(feet) 
10 
10 
10 
10 
5 
10 
10 
15 
10 
3 
4 
4 
7 


Sandstone, medium, light brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red; red shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium, red; little shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, red; some red shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium to coarse, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, brown; red clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium to coarse, red; some red clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium, brownish-red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rocks, coarse, red, gray, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, reddish-brown; some red clay.... .. .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . ... . 
Yield: 285 gpm, with drawdown of 182 feet, April 1940. 


Der th 
(feet) 
230 
24n 
25() 
26() 
26,1) 
275 
281) 
301 
310 
313 
317 
321 
32" 


Ro 90; 16X, 11. 7S, O. 2W; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co. ; well No. 13; N anuet; drilled by 
Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface about 260 feet. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (fef't, ) 
4 4 
15 19 
1 21 
15 35 
13 48 
23 71 
2 73 
15 8° 
99 187 
3 191 
38 228 
4 
2 
93 325 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Hardpan; sandy clay; gravel; stones (some water).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan, red.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan, yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan; sandy clay; small gravel (tan to pink). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel, heavy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan, brown, yellow; small grayel and sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red (fissure at 181 feet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....... 
Mud seam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, soft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red (fissures at 263 and 264 feet; mud seams at 270 to 273, 
and 309 feet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 440 gpm, with drawdown of 67 feet, June 1942. 
Ro 92; 16X, 13.0S, 2.4E; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; well No. 15; Blauvelt; drilled 
by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface 174.8 feet. 
Thickness De"')th 
(feet) (fe;'
t) 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Gravel, sandy; red clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan; red clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


64 


13 
11 


1 


1 


]4 


""0- 
J. .1 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Shale, gray and brown; fine brown sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 
Shale, brown; and sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, hard, brown; some brown sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, hard, brown; some red clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, hard, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, soft, brown; streaks of red clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, grayish-white to brown; some streaks of brown shale. . . . . 
Shale, medium to hard, brown; some streaks of red clay. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, medium to hard, brown; abundance of red clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, soft to hard, brown; some red clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale(?), fine, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium to coarse, brown; gray shale(?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to medium, brown; some streaks of brown shale and 
red clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


21 
9 
31 
12 
18 
14 
22 
45 
28 
29 
4 
23 


46 
55 
86 
98 
116 
130 
152 
197 
225 
254 
258 
281 


114 


395 


Ro 93; 16X, 15.3S, 2.1E; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; well No. 20; Tappan; drilled 
by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface about 165 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Clay, sandy, brown; some gravel. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan, brown; clay ; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan, muddy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Shale, red; some hardpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; broken pieces of sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; streaks of shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; small sandstone lenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; clay seams. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; lenses of gray clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; with red clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; with pieces of sandstone. 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone; shale streaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; some sandstone lenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; lenses of shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red; some red rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; thin layers of gray sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; gray sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red; sandstone lenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red j red sandstone streaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, light red; clay streaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; quartz particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


65 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
20 20 
24 44 
6 50 
6 56 
19 75 
15 90 
10 100 
15 115 
5 120 
10 130 
10 140 
5 145 
10 155 
5 160 
10 170 
15 185 
5 190 
5 195 
10 205 
5 210 
5 215 
15 230 
15 245 
10 255 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness 
(feet) 
10 
15 
10 
5 
10 
5 
10 
40 
15 
5 
15 
5 
30 
18 
7 
36 
6 
8 
5 
9 
10 
26 


Sandstone, red; shale lenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; some sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; clay lenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Conglomerate; sandstone; clay lenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; gray clay seams... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone; red rock seams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; gray clay seams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red; clay, sticky. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; clay seams; some sandston e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; with clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; with red rock layers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; gray clay seams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, light red, hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; with shale streaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, light red; with clay lenses, fairly hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, light red; hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; with clay; pieces of quartz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, grayish, hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, light red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, light red; and clay lenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 175 gpm, with drawdown of 104 feet, October 1953. 


r
pth 
(feet) 
265 
280 
290 
295 
305 
310 
320 
360 
375 
380 
395 
400 
430 
448 
455 
491 
497 
505 
510 
519 
529 
555 


Ro 94; 16X, 6.9S, 2.5W; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; well No. 18; New Hempstead; 
drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface about 480 feet. 
Thickness I'
pth 
(feet) C
et) 


Recen t: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Clay, yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, sandy, yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, brown, mixed with clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse, brown; some clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse, brown and gray; medium-sized gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Hardpan, red and brown clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, medium coarse, reddish-brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, reddish-brown; streaks of red clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to medium, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, reddish-brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Fissure (loose rock) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, reddish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, rotten; red sandstone; and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


66 


1 1 
2 3 
2 5 
35 40 
4 44 
7 51 
S 56 
69 125 
6 131 
19 150 
35 185 
1 186 
16 202 
3 205 
95 300 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Ro 141; 16X, 10.6S, l.4W; Robert Faist, Nanuet; drilled by E. Hamilton; altitude of land surface 
about 400 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Hardpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 15 gpm, 1950. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
25 25 
56 81 
72 153 


Ro 173.; 16X, 3. 7S, 1. 8E; Simons Building; Haverstraw; drilled by E. Hamilton; altitude of land surface 
about 25 feet. 


Recent and Pleistocene: 
Dirt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Clay, brick (lake deposits ?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassi c : 
Newark group: 
Sandstone (artesian flow) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
25 25 
65 90 
260 350 


Ro 180; 16X, 4.5S, 1.2W; Fred Camron; Mount Ivy; drilled by E. Hamilton; altitude of land surface 
about 400 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Palisade diabase: 
Traprock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 20 gpm, 1951. 


Thickness r'
pth 
(feet) (feet) 
3 3 
17 20 
32 52 


Ro 186; 16X, 5. 2S, 2. OW; Rockland County Storehouse; Short Clove; altitude of land surface 3 bou t 
200 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Till; some thin layers of sand and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 40 gpm, with drawdown of 32 feet after 19 hours of pumping, 1948. 


67 


Thickness r: '
pth 
(feet) (r?
t) 
60 60 
10 70 
30 ]00 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Ro 189; 16X, 9.2S, 8.3W; Village of Suffern; Suffern; drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co,. Inc.; 
altitude of land surface about 274 feet. 


Recent and Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Topsoil and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel and clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay and hardpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel; boulders; water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand; gravel; boulders; no water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel; boulders; some water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand; loam; boulders; no water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine; no water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand........................................................ . 
Sand; gravel; boulders; water... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel; water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Screen setting: 55 to 95 feet. 
Yield: 637 gpm, with drawdown of about 9 feet, 1951. 
Nearby test well encountered granite gneiss at 118 feet. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
5 5 
4 9 
11 20 
5 25 
5 30 
10 40 
10 50 
5 55 
5 60 
15 75 
15 90 
5 95 


Ro 190; 16X, 9. 2S, 8. 3W; Village of Suffern; Suffern; drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co,.. Inc.; 
altitude of land surface about 274 feet. 


Recent and Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Topsoil and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel; sand; boulders; water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel; sand; boulders; some clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand; gravel; boulders; water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel, cemented. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel, loose; water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand........................................................ . 
Gravel; clay; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, brown; water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand; gravel; water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ',' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, brown; gravel; water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
5 5 
5 10 
5 15 
15 30 
5 35 
7 42 
5 47 
18 65 
9 74 
20 94 
3 97 


Screen setting: 47 to 97 feet. 
Yield: 1,250 gpm, with drawdown of about 7 feet after 1 hour of pumping, February 1952. 


Ro 198; 16X, 3.6S, O. f\V; New York Water Service Corp.; Garnerville; drilled by Rinbranc Well 
Drilling Co.; altitude of land surface 305 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Boulders and hardpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


68 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


12 


12 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness 1: ':,""th 
(feet) (f
et) 


Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Rock, red; soft sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone; small hard stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Boulder stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandsto11e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale. . . . . . . . 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 138 gpm, with drawdown of about 105 feet. 
Ro 209; 16X, 4.5S, 2. 7W; I. Katz; Camp Hill; drilled by C. W. Lauman and Co., Inc.; altitude of land 
surface about 540 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Till: 
No record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel, large. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, gray. . . . . . . . , , . . , , , , . , , , , . . . , , . . . . . . . , . , ' , . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . , . , . . . . , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . ,. ......." 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
No record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Yield: 33 gpm, with drawdown of 69 feet after 4 hours of pumping, 1946. 


13 
10 
40 
10 
10 
5 
10 
15 
10 
15 
10 
15 
15 
130 


25 
35 
75 
85 
95 
100 
J 10 
]25 
]35 
]50 
]60 
]75 
]90 
320 


Thickness D::pth 
(feet) (f":
t) 
46 46 
3 49 
109 158 
120 278 
26 314 
36 340 
28 3118 
3 371 


Ro 216; 16X, 16.6S, 4.1E; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring; Palisades; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude of land surace 
about 150 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Soil, sandy, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Palisade diabase: 
Rock, broken.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Traprock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


69 


Thickness D
pth 
(feet) (fnet) 
2 2 
4 6 
3 9 
6 15 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Ro 217; 16X, 16.3S, 4.0E; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring No.3; Palisades; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude of land 
surface about 174 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Clay, brown; sand; broken trap rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, sandy, brown; trap rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Palisade diabase: 
Trap rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
9 9 
5 14 
11 25 


Ro' 218; 16X, 15. 9S, 3. 3E ; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring No. 8 A; Tappan Station; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude of 
land surface about 38 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Clay, brown; medium sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium; trace of brown clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Sand, medium, reddish-brown; clay; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Conglomerate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
6 8 
11 19 
4 23 
5 28 
2 30 


Ro 219; 16X, 15. 8S, 3. 6E ; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Pa]'kway 
test boring No.4; Tappan Station; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude of 
land surface about 23 feet. 


Recent: 
Humus and topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Sand, coarse; trace of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine to coarse; some gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red; fine sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
3 3 
3 6 
10 16 
5 21 
39 60 
8 68 


Ro' 220; 16X, 15. 7S, 3. 5E; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring No.3; Tappan Station; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude of 
land surface about 24 feet. 


Recent: 
Mlld; humus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


70 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


5 


5 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness D;pth 
(feet) (f
t) 


Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Sand, gray; small gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, gray; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, gray, water-bearing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, brown.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium, gray; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fille, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, sandy, medium, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, nledium, brown and gray; trace of clay..... . . . ., .. ., .. . . ... . 


4 
5 
7 
5 
3 
2 
4 
7 
15 
4 
7 
18 


9 
14 
21 
26 
29 
31 
35 
42 
57 
61 
68 
86 


Ro 221; 16X, 15. 6S, 3. 4E ; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring No.6; Sparkill; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude of land 
surface about 81 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Sand, red; trace of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, brown; trace of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, brown; water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, brown; trace of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness D
pth 
(feet) (f'
et) 
5 5 
33 38 
2 40 
7 47 


Ro 222; 16X, 15.1S, 3.2E; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring No. 1 A; Sparkill; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude of land 
surface about 65 feet. 


Thickness Dnpth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
10 12 
5 17 
4 21 
8 29 
17 46 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Clay, brown; trace of sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse, brown; trace of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium, brown; trace of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, brown; trace of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ro 223; 16X, 14. 9S, 3.0E; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring No.3; Upper Sparkill Creek; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude 
of land surface about 60 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Clay, red; fine to medium sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


71 


Thickness Du)th 
(feet) (fE:
t) 
2 2 
27 29 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness 
(feet) 
11 
14 
3 
2 


Clay, brown; trace of fine sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red-brown; trap fragments; fine sand; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse; trace of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel; coarse sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Depth 
(feet) 
40 
54 
57 
59 


Ro 224; 16X, 14. 7S, 2.8E; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Pr,rkway 
test boring No.6; Orangeburg; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude of land 
surface about 77 feet. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
16 16 
10 26 
10 36 
2 38 


Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Clay; medium sand, gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, red; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Clay; compact, gray; fine to medium sand; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, coarse sand; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ro 225; 16X, 14.6S, 2.6E; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Pr,rkway 
test boring No.5; Orangeburg; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude of land 
surface about 98 feet. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Recent and Pleistocene: 
Fill; clay; sand; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Sand, medium; red clay; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 11 
Clay, red; medium sand; gravel; trap fragments. . . . " ., .. . . .. ., ... 10 21 
Sand, coarse; trap fragments; gravel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 23 
Clay, medium sand; gravel, hardpacked..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 31 
Ro 226; 16X, 14.0S, 2.2E; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate P::.rkway 
test boring; Orange burg; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude of land surface 
about 210 feet. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
7 7 
6 13 
4 17 
3 20 
14 34 
2 36 


Recent: 
Loam, trace of clay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Sand, fine to medium; trace of clay; trap fragments; boulders. . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium to coarse; trace of clay; trap fragments; gravel; boulders. 
Sand, fine to medium; clay; trap fragments; gravel; boulders. . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium; compact clay; gravel; boulders... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium; compact clay; gravel; trap fragments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ro 227; 16X, 13.4S, 1. 9E; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring No.2; Blauvelt; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude ('f land 
surface about 187 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil; humus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


72 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


1 


1 



Table 16.--Logs of selected wells and test borings in ,Ro.ckland' County-(Continued)- 
Thickness D
pth 
(feet) (feet) 


Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Sand, medium, brown; gray clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium, brown; clay; gravel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium; brown clay; trace of trap fragments, compact. . . . . . . . 
Clay, compact; medium sand; trap fragments..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


5 
4 
9 
,,6 


6 
10 
19 
25 


Ro 228; 16X, 13. IS, 1. 6E; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate ParI-way 
test boring No.1; Blauvelt; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude of land 
surface 158 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil; clay; loam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Clay, red, fine; sand; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, medium, brown; sand; graveL.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Stratified drift (?): 
Sand, medium; gravel, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness D :.pth 
(feet) (het) 
2 2 
4 6 
10 16 
5 21 
4 25 


Ro 229; 16X, 12. 9S, 1 . IE; N ew York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring; Hackensack River, Naurashan; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; 
altitude of land surface 51 feet. 


Recent: 
Sand; loam.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Clay, red (lake beds) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red; trace of sand (lake beds) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red; shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
4 6 
13 19 
11 30 
5 35 


Ro 230; 16X, 12.5S, 1. DE; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring No.1; N aurashan; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude of land 
surface 89 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil; humus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Sand, medium to coarse, brown; clay; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, brown; clay; gravel... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, brown; coarse sand ; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Red sandstone encountered in nearby test borings, 26 to 29 feet below land surface. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
22 
4 
3 
;7 
12 E9 


73 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Ro 231; 16X, 12.6S, 1.0E; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Par 1 ,way 
test boring No.1; Erie Railroad bridge; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude 
of land surface 129 feet.. 


Recent: 
Topsoil; cinders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Clay, red; sand; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, reddish-brown; sand; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
4 6 
5 11 
7 18 


Ro 232; 16X, 11.8S, 0.8E; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring No.1; Townline Road; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude of 
land surface 232 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Clay, fine sand ; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, compact; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
4 6 
9 15 
5 20 


Ro 233; 16X, 11.0S, 0.7E; New York State Department of Public Works; Route 59 relocation test 
boring No. B-1; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co., altitude of land surface about 
250 feet. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Recent: 
No record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 
Pleistocene: 
Sand, brown; trace of gravel. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5 
Sand, fine, brown; clay; trace of gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 13 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red; shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 24 
Nine other borings nearby; depth to bedrock ranges from 12 to 35 feet. 
Ro 234; 16X, 10. OS, O. 2E; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring No.2; Bardonia; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude ('f land 
surface 286 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Sand, coarse, red; gravel; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium to coarse, red; gravel; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


74 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
8 8 
15 23 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red; calcite veins; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


6 


29 


Ro 235; 16X, 9. 7S, O. IE ; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring No.5; Bardonia; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude of land 
surface 316 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Sand, medium, brown; gravel; trace of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium, brown; gravel; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, gray ; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, fragments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, broken; gravel; medium sand; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
9 9 
6 15 
6 21 
2 23 
2 25 


Ro 236; 16X, 8.8S, O.4W; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring No.4; North Middletown Road; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; 
altitude of land surface 333 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift (?): 
Sand, medium, red; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium, brown; graveL... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium, brown; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, brown, seamy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
6 6 
10 16 
6 22 
14 36 


Ro 237; 16X, 7. 8S, 1. OW ; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring No.6; New City Park; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co. ; altitude of land 
surface 447 feet. . 


Thickness D('T)th 
(feet) (f('(
t ) 
7 7 
6 13 
11 24 


Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Sand, fine, brown; gravel; gray clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, brown; gravel; gray clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, hard; fine gray sand; gravel; and water... . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. ., . 
Ro 238; 16X, 7.0S, 1.3W; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring No.3; New Hempstead Road, Hempstead; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling 
Co.; altitude of land surface 487 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Sand, fine to medium, brown; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium to coarse, brown; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


75 


Thickness D('"\')th 
(feet) (f('(
t) 
7 7 
10 17 



Table 16.-Logs of'seleded wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Till (?): 
Sand, fine, gray; silt; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, seamy, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


3 


20 


7 


27 


Ro 239; 16X, 5.4S, 1. 7W; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring; Pomona; drilled by Riley Engineering and Drilling Co.; altitude of land surface 
532 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Sand, medium, brown; clay; gravel; compact.... ... . .... . .. .. . . ., . 
Clay, red; medium sand; gravel... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone and conglomerate, seamy, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
7 7 
2 9 
6 15 


Ro 241; 16X, 4.4S, 2.1W; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Pa,rkway 
test boring No.1; New York and New Jersey Railroad bridge; M t. Ivy; drilled by Riley Er 
ineer- 
ing and Drilling Co.; altitude of land surface 453 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil; sandy loam; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Sand and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till (?): 
Clay; sand; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
1 1 
15 16 
5 21 
10 31 


Ro 242; 16X, 2.1S, 1.8W; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate P,<\,rkway 
test boring No.1; Minisceongo Creek bridge; drilled by New York State Department of Public 
Works; altitude of land surface about 380 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil; loam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Loam, sandy; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel; sand; some clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel; fine to coarse sand; silt; trace of clay...................... 
Sand, fine; some silt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gra vel; coarse sand. . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


76 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
1 1 
5 6 
6 12 
24 36 
9 45 
8 53 
7 60 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Co.ntinued} 
Thickness Df'oth 
(feet) (f('at) 


Till (?): 
Clay, gray; sand; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


6 


66 


Ro 243; I6X, 10.6S, 0.6W; New York State Department of Public Works; test boring; relocatio'1 of 
Route 59, about 500 feet east of Route 304; Nanuet; altitude of land surface about 280 feet. 
Thickness DE'nth 
(feet) (fc
t) 


Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Silt, organic, black; some fine sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, brown; some silt; trace of small gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse, gray; some small gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, brown; some silt and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


2 
3 
5 
19 


2 
5 
10 
29 


6 


35 


Ro 244; 16X, 11. OS, LIE ; New York State Department of Public Works; test boring, relocatio'1 of 
Route 59, about 0.7 mile east of Rose Rd., Clarksville; altitude of land surface about 240 feet. 
Thickness De.pth 
(feet) (f£.
t) 


Recent and Pleistocene: 
Overburden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red, soft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red, soft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


13 13 
6 1.9 
2 21 
2 23 
3 26 
17 43 
3 4'> 
4 f:O 


Ro 247; 16X, 3. 3S, 1. 9W ; New York State Department of Public Works; PaJisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring No.1; South Branch Minisceongo Creek Bridge; Letchworth Village; altitude of 
land surface 374 feet. 


Recent: 
Muck, silty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Gra vel, coarse; sand; muck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel, blue; gray silt; some clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, gray; silt; fine gravel; some clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt, gray; some sand and clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt; some sand; trace of gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt, gray; sand; some clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt, gray; some sand; trace of gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt, sand; some clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


77 


Thickness De'1th 
(feet) (fe
t) 
1 1 
11 ]2 
6 ]8 
4 
;2 
4 
'3 
4 
O 
4 
4 
3 
7 
3 40 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Ro 248; 16X, 2.0N, 1.6W; New York State Department of Public Works; Palisades Interstate Parkway 
test boring; about 200 feet north of Queensboro trail, Stony Point; altitude of land surfa
e 695 
feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift and till (?): 
('lay, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
(lay, brown and blue.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, blue; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt, clay; sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, brown; sand ; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay and sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
3 3 
4 7 
4 11 
8 19 
15 34 
3 37 
24 61 


Ro 255; 16X, 7. OS, 4. 2E; Palisades Interstate Park Commission, Hook Mountain State Park well No. 
2; Rockland Lake; drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface 
about 170 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Clay ; gravel; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hard pan; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel; boulders; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone (water-bearing). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, soft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red, water-bearing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 100 gpm, with drawdown of about 192 feet, 1948. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
9 11 
9 20 
10 30 
23 53 
20 73 
10 83 
39 122 
27 149 
10 159 
5 164 
8 172 
29 201 
80 281 
48 329 


Ro 257; 16X, 13. OS, O. 7E; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; N aurashan test well; N aura,shan; 
altitude of land surface about 66 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift (?): 
Clay, sandy, brown and blue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, brown, and gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


78 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
15 17 
1 18 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 


Till: 
Hardpan, gray and brown... . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, gray-brown; some clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium, reddish-brown; some red clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, red; some red clay and shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay seam or crevice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, brown.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay seam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red and clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, :fine to medium, gray-brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to medium, brown and gray; some red shale (clay seam 
or crevice at 178 feet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to medium, brown; red shale and clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to medium, reddish-brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium to coarse, brown; some red shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, reddish-brown; some red shale; red and blue clay. . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, brown; clay; and shale (small crevice at 279 feet). . . . . 
Shale, red; some red clay; sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, brown; some red shale; blue and red clay (crevice at 
329 feet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to medium, grayish-brown (crevice at 381 feet) . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to medium, gray-brown; some red shale; red clay. . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, brown; red shale; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium to coarse, brown; some red shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 35 gpm, with drawdown of 185 feet, 1946. 


Thickness D;.pth 
(feet) (f::et) 
16 34 
4 38 
17 55 
48 103 
1 104 
19 123 
1 124 
22 146 
6 152 
9 161 
13 174 
19 193 
20 213 
28 2'41 
10 27'1 
17 2
8 
12 2"n 
5 2'),1} 
84 3
9 
11 3"n 
19 3':\9 
30 429 
12 441 


Ro 258; 16X, 11. IS, 1.6E; Village of Nyack; test boring No. 16; West Nyack; drilled by P. ,J. Healey, 
Inc. ; altitude of land surface about 65 feet. Geologic correlation based in part on examination of 
samples by N. M. Perlmutter. 


Recent: 
Topsoil, roots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Sand, gray and yellow; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine to medium, brown; some silt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium to coarse, red, clean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, silty, red; some coarse gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, silty; red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, and silt, red; some coarse gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Sand, fine, red; silt; gravel; trace of clay. ..... . .. .... ., .... .. .. ... 
Sand, red; clay; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . 


79 


Thickness D
pth 
(feet) (feet) 
3 3 
1 4 
5 9 
10 19 
7 26 
16 42 
14 56 
5 61 
8 69 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Triassi c : 
Newark group: 
Refusal (probably bedrock) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


at 


69 


Ro 259; 16X, 10.9S, 1.6E; Village of Nyack; test boring No. 17; West Nyack; drilled by P. J. Healey, 
Inc.; altitude of land surface about 65 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift (?): 
Sand and silt, red; clay; gravel; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, and silt, red; coarse gravel; trace of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene (?) or Triassic (?): 
Refusal (possibly till or bedrock)... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
26 26 
15 41 
at 41 


Ro 260; 16X, 11.3S, 2.1E; Village of Nyack; test boring No. 10; West Nyack; drilled by P. J. Healey, 
Inc.; altitude of land surface about 70 feet. Geologic correlation based in part on examination 
of samples by N. M. Perlmutter. 


Recent and Pleistocene: 
Clay, gray and yellow; roots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Clay, red and gray, in layers; trace of gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Sand, red; gravel; trace of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Refusal (probably bedrock) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
3 3 
6 9 
11 20 
at 20 


Ro 261; 16X, 10.48, 2.3E; Village of Nyack; test boring No.9; West Nyack; drilled by P. J. Healey, 
Inc.; altitude of land surface about 70 feet. Geologic correlation based in part on examination 
of samples by N. M. Perlmutter. 


Recent: 
Topsoil; loam... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Sand, brown; gravel. . . " . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, silty, red. " . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red. . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine to medium, ,brown; coarse gravel; trace of silt. . . . . . . . . . .. 
Triassic: 
Palisade diabase: 
Rock, soft and broken, gray _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, seamy, broken 
 . . . . _ .' , . . . . .' _ " . , . .' . " ,. . , . . . . . . . . . . 
 . . . : . . . , ' 


SJJ 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
3 5 
6 11 
5 16 
S 24 
2 26 
3 29 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells an
 test boring$ in Rockla...d Co.un,y
(Co.l)tin"ed) 

o 267; 16X, 16.6S, 5.0E; Dorothy Willard; Snedens Landing; drilled by Artesian Well and Equipnent 
Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface about 100 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Clay, boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Palisade diabase: 
Traprock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red and gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, pink. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, purple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, purple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red and gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Traprock, blue and black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, brown, red, and gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red and gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Dc-nth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
43 45 
67 112 
16 128 
32 160 
27 187 
20 207 
18 2'
5 
10 215 
15 2,
0 
15 21
5 
42 307 
6 313 
24 3,37 
191 528 


Ro 275; 16X, 12.5S, 1.8W; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; test well No.5; Pearl Rjver; 
drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface 337 feet. 


Recent: 
Soil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till (?): 
Clay and sand, yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Rock, very soft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, soft, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, heavy, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, some shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to medium, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, very hard, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay seam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red, large amount of white gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 95 gpm, with drawdown of 100, fee.t, 1.9.42... 


81 


Thickness n
pth 
(feet) (feet) 
1 1 
29 30 
17 47 
54 101 
3 104 
5 109 
56 165 
35 2 ' 10 
1 2 ' 11 
34 2:'1; 
45 2"0 
50 3
0 
18 34-8 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Ro 276; 16X, 12.5S, 2.0W; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; test well No.3; Pearl River; 
drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface 263 feet. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
407 409 


Recent: 
Loam........ .... .......... ............ ........ ........ ....... 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red; (fissures at 6 and 20 feet, soft spots at 72 and 78 feet). . 
Yield: 72 gpm, with drawdown of 100 feet, 1942. 
Ro 277; 16X, 12.7S, 2.1W; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; test well No.2; Pearl River; 
drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface 285 feet. 


Recent: 
Loam, sandy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till (?): 
Gravel, fine; sandy clay, gray, yellow, and red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red; (fissures at 165, 180, and 230 feet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; (5-inch fissure at 320 feet; 6-inch fissure at 355 feet).. 
Yield: 67 gpm, 1942. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
36 36 
53 89 
166 255 
6 261 
141 402 


Ro 281; 16X, 12.4S, 5.5E; New York State Thruway Authority; Tappan Zee Bridge; test boring No. 
15; on center line of bridge, about 7,200 feet east of west shore of Hudson River; drilled by Giles 
Drilling Corp., 1952; depths are given below mean low water. 


Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Recent and Pleistocene (?): 
Silt, organic, gray; little fine sand; trace of shells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Silt, organic, gray; numerous fine sand layers 78 to 
 inch thick at 72 
to 2 inch spacing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, gray; some silt in layers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt, organic, gray; trace of fine sand, numerous layers of fine sand. . . 
Clay, silty, gray; partings of clayey silt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt, clayey, reddish-brown; layers of gray silt.y clay; coarse silt partings 
Sand, fine, reddish-brown; layers of reddish-brown silt and clay. . . . . . 
Silt, clayey, reddish; little fine to medium sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
11. 7 11. 7 
49.9 61.6 


105.4 
6 
10.1 
76.9 
45 
14 
2 


167 
173 
183.1 
260 
305 
319 
321 


Ro 282; 16X, 12.3S, 4.5E; New York State Thruway Authority; Tappan Zee Bridge; test boring No. 
11; on center line of bridge, about 1,700 feet east of west shore of Hudson River; drilled by 
Sprague and Henwood, Inc., 1950; depths are given below mean sea level. 


Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


82 


Thickness 
(feet) 
6.5 


Depth 
(feet) 
6.5 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Recent: 
Silt, organic, gray; shells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Sand, fine, gray; trace of silt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, silty, gray; clayey silt, in layers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


32 


38.5 


15 
200.5 


53.5 
254 


Ro 283; 16X, 12.1S, 4.3E; New York State Thruway Authority; Tappan Zee Bridge; test boring No. 
12; on center line of bridge, about 200 feet east of west shore of Hudson River; drilled by Giles 
Drilling Corp., 1952; depths are given below mean low water. 


Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Recent: 
Silt, organic, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Peat, black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Clay, silty, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt, clayey, reddish; trace of fine sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Sand, reddish-brown, fine to coarse; some gravel and silt. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, hard, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Ro 284; 16X, 11. 7S, 4. IE ; New York State Thruway Authority; test boring No. 
drilled by McArthur Concrete Pile Corp.; altitude of land surface 101 feet. 


Recent: 
Fill; sand; ash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till (?): 
Sand, fine to coarse, brown; some fine to medium gravel; trace of silt. 
Sand, fine to coarse, brown; some coarse to fine gravel; trace of silt. . . 
Till: 
Sand, fine to coarse, brown; some fine to medium gravel; trace of silt; 
some small boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Boulder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
3.2 3.2 
15.9 19.1 
8 27.1 
1.8 28.9 
10.1 39 
11.5 50.5 
15.6 66.1 
106; South Pyack; 
Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
7 7 
11 18 
5 23 
10 33 
1 34 
4 38 


Ro 285; 16X, 10.9S, 3. 7E; New York State Thruway; test boring No. 24; Nyack; drilled by McArthur 
Concrete Pile Corp.; altitude of land surface 231 feet. ' 


Pleistocene: 
Till (?): 
Sand, fine to,coarse, brown; fine to medium gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 


83 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
8 8 



Table 16.-Logs, of. selected wells and ,test borings in Rockland ,County-(Continued) 
Thickness 
(feet) 
14 
10 


Sand, fine to coarse; brown; fine to coarse gravel; trace of silt. . . . . . . 
Sand, medium to coarse, brown; fine to medium gravel; trace of silt. . 
Till: 
Sand, coarse, brown; gravel; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red; drilled and recovered 7 -inch core; may be bedrock or a 
glacial boulder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Depth 
(feet) 
22 
32 


8 


40 


at 40 


Ro 286; 16X, 15.1S, 3. 9E; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; test well No.1; Piermont; drilled 
by Artesian Well and Equipment Co.; log furnished by Leggette, Brashears, and Graham; alti- 
tude of land surface 23 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Boulders, trap rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and gravel; some clay; (driller calls material hardpan). . . . . . . . . 
Stratified drift: 
Sand and gravel, coarse, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
 ',' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine to medium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and gravel, coarse... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'. . .'. . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and gravel, coarse. . . . . . . . . . . . .'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Gravel, angular, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel, angular, with much clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, gray; coarse sand; pebbles of trap rock...................... 
Till(?) or bedrock(?) : 
Trap rock, very hard; (boulders?). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay and sand, very compact; some 
eathered pe

les. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: ' , 
Newark group: 
Quartzite, weathered and unweathered, fractured, in alternating layers. 
Yield: 240 gpm, with drawdown of about 32 feet, 1954. 
This well about 250 feet southwest of Ro 287. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
21 23 
11 34 
7 41 
2 43 
6 49 
3 52 
6 58 
5 63 
8 71 
20 91 
18 109 
3 112 
3 115 
19 134 
29 163 


Ro 287; 16X, 15.1S, 3.9E; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; test wen. No.2; Piernont; 
drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface 28 feet. 
Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Recent and Pleistocene: , , 
Topsoil; boulders; sand; small gravel. .-:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Gravel, coarse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine ; gravel; clay. . . . . . .' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


84 


14 


14 


11 
4 


25 
29 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 


Gravel and sand, coarse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel and sand, very coarse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Rock, broken, heat contact (rock type reported to be quartzite). . . . .. 
Production well about 10 feet from this test well; screen setting 52 to 72 feet. 
Yields about 275 gpm, 1955. 


Thickness 
(feet) 
5 
10 
8 
9 
10 


Depth 
(feet) 
34 
44 
52 
61 
71 


22 


93 


Ro 288; 16X, 15.1S, 3.9E; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; test well No.3; Piermont; 
drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface about 22 feet. 
Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Clay, brown; rock fragments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, brown; rock fragments; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine; clay; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, and fine sand; rock fragments; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand; gravel; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, gray; angular rock fragments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock fragments, angular. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, gray; fine sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine; silt; angular rock fragments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, reddish-gray; angular rock fragments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Palisade (?) diabase: 
Rock, gray (trap). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, decayed, white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . 
This well about 40 feet southeast of Ro 286. 


2 2 
5 7 
2 9 
10 19 
4 23 
9 32 
6 38 
5 43 
7 50 
3 53 
10 63 
4 67 
10 77 


Ro 289; 16X, 9.8S, O.3E; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; well No.-19; Bardonia; drilled 
by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface 286 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Gray clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, sandy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, dirty; a little water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, muddy; shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . 
Sandstone, clean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


85 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
6 6 
4 10 
8 18 
5 23 
55 78 
20 98 
3 101 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Sandstone, muddy; shale (static water level, 5.2 feet, at 122 feet, 
September 29, 1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 136 
Sandstone, hard and soft streaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 149 
Sandstone, hard (static water level, 5.2 feet, at 152 feet, September 30, 
1953) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 152 
Sandstone; few streaks of shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 175 
Sandstone, clean; drills very coarse.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 190 
Same as above; few streaks of clay (static water level, 6.9 feet, at 195 
feet, September 30, 1953) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 200 
Sandstone, red; streaks of clay... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 210 
Sandstone, clean, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 222 
Sandstone, red; streaks of shale (static water level, 6.9 feet, at 220 feet, 
October 1, 1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 262 
Sandstone, hard, and soft; red shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 278 
Shale, muddy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 292 
Shale, red; (static water level, 7.5 feet, at 318 feet, October 7, 1953). . 30 322 
Shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 332 
Shale, muddy; a few streaks of hard shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 337 
Sandstone, very hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 347 
Shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 352 
Shale, dirty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 365 
Sandstone, red, hard and clean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 390 
Shale, streaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 393 
Sandstone; streaks of shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 408 
Shale (static water level, 7.5 feet, at 410 feet, October 19, 1953) . . . . . . 15 423 
Shale; streaks of sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 428 
Sandstone; streaks of shale, drills hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 432 
Shale, muddy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 437 
Shale, muddy; streaks of sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 442 
Shale, streaks of sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 447 
Shale and sandstone,' streaky. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 462 
Sandstone, clean; drills hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 467 
Shale: muddy; (static water level, 7.3 feet, at 477 feet, October 23, 1953) 10 477 
Yield: 270 gpm, with drawdown of about 195 feet, 1953. Bottom of hole 477 feet. 


Ro 291; 16X, 9. IS, O. 3E; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; well No. 21; Germonds; drilled 
by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land. surface ab9ut 300 feet. 
Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Recent: 
Fill....... . .. .. . . . . ........ .. .. .. . . ., .. . . . . .. . . .... . . . . ... . .. . 
Pleistocene (?): 
Silt (marsh land) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Clay; and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Ledge, broken. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


2 


2 


3 


5 


12 


17 


6 


23 


86 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 


Sandstone, red, clean (considerable water in hole at 63 to- 65 feet. 
Static water level, 10.2 feet at 76 feet, July 3, 1953) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; streaks of red shale, from 3 to 6 inches in thickness. . . . 
Sandstone, red (static water level, 11.3 feet at 132 feet, July 6,1953). . 
Sandstone, red, coarse; with streaks of shale.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red; hard and soft streaks; a little more water (static 
water level, 13.3 feet at 197 feet, July 7, 1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red; streaks of shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone; streaks of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, clean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse; muddy streaks (static water level, 15.5 feet at 260 
feet, July 8, 1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone; streaks of shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red; very muddy; hole seems to have a little more water. . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; few streaks of shale (static water level, 16.2 feet at 
315 feet, July 9, 1953; static water level, 22.9 feet at 360 feet, July 
10, 1953)................................................... 
Sandstone, harder (bailer test at 368 feet gave specific capacity of 1 
gpm/ft.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Shale; few streaks of sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale; few lenses of sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, dirty (static water level, 20.7 feet at 399 feet, July 13, 1953). . . 
Shale, dirty, brown; streaks of clay (static water level 21.1 feet at 435 
feet, July 14, 1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Palisade diabase: 
Rock, trap, hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Newark group: 
Shale, red, very muddy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Palisade diabase: 
Rock, trap, very hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, trap; with a few streaks of shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Newark group: 
Rock, muddy, red; with streaks of clay (static water level, 21 feet at 
480 feet, July 16, 1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, hard, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, brown; and greenish rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, brown; some caving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, reddish (static water level, 21.2 feet at 568 feet, July 
23, 1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; streaks of shale (static water level, 21.2 feet at 594 
feet, July 24, 1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 150 gpm, with drawdown of about 198 feet, 1953. 


87 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
55 78 
5 83 
95 178 
15 193 
5 198 
17 215 
6 221 
5 226 
10 236 
15 251 
30 281 
5 286 
17 303 
9 312 
49 361 
5 366 


5 37L 
15 386 
20 406 
30 436 
6 442 
16 458 
5 463 
10 473 
11 484 
6 490 
10 500 
65 565 
24 589 
12 601 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Ro 292; 16X, 8. 9S, O. 5E; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; test well No.1; Germonds; 
drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface about 260 feet. 
Thickness 1: '
pth 
(feet) (feet) 


Recent: 
Fill..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Clay, sandy, reddish-brown..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, sandy, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Rock, red; streaks of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Stone, brown, hard and clean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Palisade diabase: 
Rock, trap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red, hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Palisade diabase: 
Rock, trap, very hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red; with small layers of trap rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, soft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fairly hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, light brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, muddy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, brown, muddy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Palisade diabase: 
Rock, trap, hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 5 gpm, 1953. 


1 1 
5 6 
3 9 
6 15 
26 41 
9 50 
3 53 
2 55 
9 64 
15 79 
6 85 
8 93 
2 95 
16 111 
2 113 
6 119 
3 122 
4 126 
30 156 


Ro 293; 16X, 7.9S, O.4E; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; well No. 23; New City; drilled 
by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface about 210 feet. 
Thickness r'3pth 
(feet) (feet) 


Recent: 
Fill; yellow clay; gravel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till : 
Hardpan, red; large stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red; clay streaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, clean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red, clean; just enough water to drill with.. . '. . . . . . : . . . . . 


88 


5 


5 


5 
6 


10 
16 


6 
8 
10 


22 
30 
40 



T
ble 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness 
(feet) 
25 


Sandstone, red; muddy streaks of clay and shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red and brown; few streaks of clay (static water level, 9.1 
feet at 75 feet, Nov. 30, 1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, reddish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red, hard and soft streaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red (static water level, 9.2 feet at 147 feet, Dec. 1, 
1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red, very hard; a few streaks of coarse sandstone. . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, light red; little mud (static water level, 9.5 feet at 
197 feet, Dec. 1, 1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse; streaks of hard sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse; few soft layers; water level dropped 2 feet (static 
water level, 10.4 feet at 242 feet, Dec. 3, 1953). .. .. .. " .. .. " .. . 
Sandstone, clear, light red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; streaks of coarse and fine material; few streaks of shale. 
Shale; little sandstone (bailer test for 10 minutes gave specific capacity 
of 4.8 gpmjft.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone; streaks of shale and dirty clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, muddy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red (static water level, 10.9 feet at 353 feet, Dec. 4, 
1953) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone; streaks of shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, muddy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, clean; hard streak at 396 feet (static water level, 10.9 feet at 396 
feet, Dec. 8, 1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale and sandstone, in streaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
, Shale, muddy (static water level, 10.9 feet at 440 feet, Dec. 11, 1953) 
Yield: 220 gpm, with drawdown of 141 feet, 1953. 


57 
3 
5 
10 
5 


13 
30 


20 
20 


20 
15 
35 


10 
10 
15 
5 


15 
5 
30 
5 


15 
10 
22 


Depth 
(feet) 
65 


122 
125 
130 
140 
145 


158 
188 


208 
228 


248 
263 
298 


308 
318 
333 
338 


i53 
i58 
388 
393 


.;t08 
.;t18 
4-40 


Ro 294; 16X, 9.6S, 5.8W; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; Tallman; drilled by Artesian 
Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface about 425 feet; log prepared by E. T. 
Simmons. 


Recent: 
Loam, black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified deposits: 
Silt and clay, brown (lake deposits ?). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till : 
Clay, red; sand and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


89 


Thickness I '
pth 
(feet) C,
t) 
2 2 
25 27 
15 42 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red (static water level, 1.2 feet above land surface at 76 
feet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red; and sandstone (static water level, 1. 6 feet above land 
surface at 113 feet). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone and red shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red (static water level, 3.8 feet above land surface at 232 feet) . . 
Sandstone and shale, red (static water level, about 4 feet above land 
surface at 251 feet). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red (static water level, 5.2 feet above land surface at 413 feet). 
Yield: 85 gpm, with drawdown of 25 feet, at 251 feet. 
100 gpm, with drawdown of 26 feet, at 297 feet. 
100 gpm, with drawdown of 25 feet, at 335 feet. 
240 gpm, with drawdown of 141 feet, at 413 feet, 1956. 
Natural flow reported to be about 35 gpm. 


61 


103 


30 
96 
5 


133 
229 
234 


101 
23 


390 
413 


Ro: 295; 16X, 7 .OS, 2. 5W; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; well No. 24, New Hempstead; 
drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface about 475 feet. 
Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Recent and Pleistocene: 
Topsoil; red clay; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift (?) and till: 
Clay, red, sandy; small gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, sandy, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, coarse to very coarse, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium, red (static water level, 10 feet at 81 feet, April 7, 
1954) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to coarse, light red; some shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium, red; some shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine to medium, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; red shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; some shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, hard, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, fine, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


90 


5 5 
5 10 
15 25 
40 65 
20 85 
15 100 
5 105 
5 110 
25 135 
5 140 
20 160 
5 165 
40 205 
45 250 
10 260 
15 275 
10 285 
5 290 
15 305 
15 320 
5 325 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 


Sandstone, coarse, red (static water level, 11 feet, May 3, 1954; pumped 
1,000 gpm for 7 hours with drawdown of 57 feet). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red; some shale (static water level, 1072 feet at 375 feet, 
May 13, 1954).. ............................................ 
Sandstone, red; streaks of shale (static water level, 872 feet at 407 
feet, May 17, 1954) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 1,515 gpm, with drawdown of 60 feet, after 20 hours of pumping. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
7 332 
57 389 
18 407 


Ro 342; 16X, 2.2S, 1.2E; Kaye-Fries Chemicals, Inc.; test well No.2; Haverstraw; drilled by Layne- 
New York Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface 35 feet. 


Recent and Pleistocene: 
Clay, sandy; few gravel, small boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, muddy; gravel; clay; little water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, sandy; few gravel; few boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, blue and gray; few gravel, few boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel; boulders; clay; little packed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Mud; few gravel; few boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gra vel; boulders; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Rock, hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


4 
2 
9 
14 
5 
3 
10 


4 
6 
15 
29 
34 
37 
47 


5 


52 


Ro 422; 16X, 11. 3S, 1. OW; Lederle Laboratories; well W; N anuet; drilled by Artesian Well and Equip- 
ment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface about 290 feet. 


Recent: 
Fill. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Muck.... ................. .............................. ..... 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Clay, gray (lake deposits ?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Hardpan, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Shale, red; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red, hard and soft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone,. coarse, red; water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red; clay seams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse; some clay seams; water. ....................... 
Sandstone, hard and soft; clay seams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone; clay, soft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone and clay, soft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


91 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
5 7 
6 13 
7 20 
4 24 
11 35 
4 39 
28 67 
10 77 
12 89 
7 96 
23 119 
9 128 
14 142 
9 151 
13 164 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and.test borings inlRockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness DE'nth 
(feet) (fE'et) 
Sandstone, medium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 173 
Sandstone, cearse; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 203 
Sandstone, medium, hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 216 
Sandstone, soft; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 221 
Sandstone, medium to coarse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2,:;: 1 
Sandstone, soft; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 21')0 
Sandstone, medium, hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 274 
Clay, streaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 277 
Sandstone, hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2r4 
Sandstone, medium, hard; some clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 337 
Shale, red; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 344 
Sandstone, hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 31)1 
Sandstone, medium; some clay.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 31)9 
Sandstone, medium; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 374 
Sandstone, hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 379 
Sandstone, medium, hard; some clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 401 
Yield: 465 gpm, with drawdown of about 150 feet after 12 hours of pumping, 1954. 
Ro 461; 16X, 6.1S, 3.4W; Hillside Estates; Pomona; drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; 
altitude of land surface about 640 feet. 


Thickness D1pth 
(feet) (het) 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 15 
Sandstone, brown (water coming in at 19 feet)... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 40 
Sandstone, coarse, brown (static water level, 18 feet, June 6, 1956).. . 5 45 
Sandstone, hard, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 52 
Sandstone, brown (hole dry at 65 feet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 65 
Sandstone, red; some shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 85 
Sandstone, red (crevice at 93 feet, 1
 feet wide; just enough water to 
drill with; static water level, 51 feet at 130 feet, June 12, 1956). . . . . - 45 130 
Sandstone, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Q 170 
Sandstone, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25: 195 
Sandstone, red (static water level, 52 feet at 210 feet, June 15, 1956). . . 15 210 
Sandstone, coarse, gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2,18 
Sandstone, red (static water level, 52 feet at 295 feet, June 27, 1956) . 77 295 
Yield: 80 gpm, with drawdown of 103 feet, after 6 hours of pumping, 1956. 
Ro 483; 16X, 12.8S, 0.05W; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; well No. 22; Pearl River; 
drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface about 220 feet. 
Thickness D
pth 
(feet) (f
et) 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till : 
Clay, sandy, yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


:1 


1 


4 


5 


92 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test boring
 in Rockland County-(Continued) 


Clay, sandy, brown; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, sandy, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, sandy, brownish-red; hardpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Shale, red; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red; streaks of red rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red; some water at 68 feet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
Shale, red; streaks of red rock (static water level, 53 feet at 83 feet, 
November 9, 1953).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red; clay seams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red, soft.-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red; hard and soft streaks; more water (static water level, 31.6 
feet at 125 feet, November 11, 1953) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red, a little harder; a little water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red, hard; more sandstone streaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, soft, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red; streaks of sandstone (static water level, 31.8 feet at 228 
feet, November 13, 1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red, hard and soft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; sandstone (static water level, 33.2 feet at 276 feet, N ovem- 
ber 16, 1953) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; some shale and small pieces of gray rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red; sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red (static water level, 33.3 feet at 316 feet, November 17,1953). 
Sandstone, some shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale and clay, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, some red shale (static water level, 33.9 feet at 352 feet, 
November 18, 1953). .. . 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, very hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone; soft shale seams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone and shale, brownish (static water level, 33.8 feet at 425 
feet, November 20, 1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, brown; some sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale and clay, brown; some sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone and shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone; shale seams (static water level, 33. 1 feet at 500 feet, N ovem- 
ber 23, 1953). . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, brown; clay; gray stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, coarse; some shale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone; some red clay and shale (static water level, 30.5 feet at 
570 feet, November 30, 1953).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale and clay, red, some gray and green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone; shale (water level dropped to 75 feet at 589 feet; much 
ca ving) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ." 


93 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
20 25 
10 35 
16 51 
2 53 


5 58 
5 63 
15 78 
5 83 
20 103 
15 118 
66 184 
5 189 
18 207 
15 222 
15 237 
29 266 
10 276 
15 291 
24 315 
1 316 
6 322 
5 327 
45 372 
8 380 
30 410 
5 415 
15 430 
20 450 
17 467 
10 477 
20 497 
42 539 
10 549 
10 559 
15 574 
4 578 
11 589 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 


Sandstone, hard, light red; some clay seams (static water level, 46.3 
feet at 596 feet, December 1, 1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, medium, hard; a little clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, hard; clay streaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, soft; shale and clay streaks (static wa ter leve
, 44. 5 feet at 
655 feet, December 3, 1953). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 204 gpm, with drawdown of 111 feet, 1953. 


Thickness D :.pth 
(feet) (f
et) 
16 6()5 
20 625 
10 635 
20 {J55 


Ro 500; 16X, 9. 7S, 4. 5W; New York State Department of Public Works; Thruway test boring No. 8-4; 
Monsey; altitude of land surface 626 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Clay ; gravel; sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness D
pth 
(feet) (f
et) 
1 1 
38 39 
5 44 
8 52 


Ro 501; 16X, 10.2S, 3.6W; New York State Department of Public Works; Thruway test boring No. 
3; Monsey Heights; altitude of land surface 486 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
 . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Sand and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till (?): 
Gravel; some sand and silt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness D 
'Oth 
(feet) (feet) 
1 1 
14 15 
5 20 
15 35 


Ro 502; 16X, 10.5S, 2.5W; New York State Department of Public Works; Thruway test boring 
To. 3, 
Route 45, Spring Valley; altitude of land surface 450 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Clay, brown; trace of sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red; trace of sand... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


94 


Thickness r: \
pth 
(feet) (t
et) 
1 1 
6 7 
19 26 
10 36 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Ro 503; 16X, 10.5S, 2.2W; New York State Department of Public Works; Thruway test boring No.4; 
Scotland Hill Road, Spring Valley; altitude of land surface 472 feet. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
1 1 
14 15 
7 22 
37 59 
9 68 
10 78 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Sand, fine; some clay; silt; small boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine; some clay; silt; trace of gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine; some gravel; silt; seams of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine; some gravel; silt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Rock........................................................ . 
Ro 504; 16X, 10.2S, l.4W; New York State Department of Public Works; Thruway test boring JTo. 3; 
Route 59, southeast of Spring Valley; altitude of land surface 387 feet. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
1 1 
13 14 
7 21 
19 40 
20 60 
10 70 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till(?) : 
Sand; clay; trace of gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand; some graveL.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and gravel; trace of clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Sand; some clay; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Rock........................................................ . 
Ro 505; 16X, 10.lS, 1.0W; New York State Department of Public Works; Thruway test boring No. 
14-5; Erie Railroad, southeast of Spring Valley; altitude of land surface 363 feet. 
Thickness I" ;.pth 
(feet) (feet) 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Till: 
Sand, brown; clay; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, brown; clay; gravel; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red; sand; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


1 


1 


19 
20 
26 


20 
40 
66 


Ro 506; 16X, 9.1S, 8.4W; New York StatejDepartment of Public Works; Thruway test boring; Ramapo 
River crossing, Suffern; altitude of land surface about 285 feet. Thickness I '
pth 
(feet) C
et) 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Sand; loam ; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, brown, and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


95 


2 


2 


5 
10 


7 
17 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Thickness 
(feet) 
43 
20 


Sand, fine to medium, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse, brown; gravel; boulder 75 to 75.6 feet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


D
pth 
(fl
et) 
60 
80 


Ro 507; 16X, 8.1S, 8.8W; New York State Department of Public Works; Thruway test boring; Route 
17 viaduct, Hilburn; altitude of land surface about 300 feet. 


Thickness Dlpth 
(feet) {f1et) 
12 12 
7 19 
40 59 
12 71 


Recent: 
Fill... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Sand, coarse, and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, brown, and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Precambrian: 
Rock, gneiss or granite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ro 508; 16X, 6. OS, 9. 7W; New York State Department of Public Works; Thruway test boring No. 
30; Stony Brook Drive, Sloatsburg; altitude of land surface about 360 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil, damp, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene; 
Stratified drift: 
Sand and gravel; silt and clay; brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and gravel; some silt and clay; gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and gravel; trace of silt; gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and gravel; some silt and clay; gray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and coarse gravel; trace of silt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ',' . . . . . . . . . . . 
Precambrian: 
Bedrock, gneiss or granite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness D
.pth 
(feet) (f;
t) 
1 1 
8 9 
6 15 
5 20 
3 23 
4 27 
9 36 


Ro 509; 16X, 9.3S, 8.2W; Erie Railroad; test boring C; Suffern; altitude of land surface about 270 feet. 
Thickness D
t)th 
(feet) (f
et) 


Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Gravel, coarse; sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand; coarse gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand; some gravel and silt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt, gray, soft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, brown; coarse gravel; some silt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, brown; coarse gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand; coarse gravel; some silt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, brown; coarse gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse; some coarse gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel, coarse; sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, brown; coarse gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium to coarse, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, gray-brown; gravel; silt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, brown; coarse gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Precambrian: 
Granite gneiss, gray; grains of pink feldspar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


96 


6 6 
13 19 
8 27 
2 29 
3 32 
8 40 
9 49 
11 60 
6 66 
3 69 
34 103 
10 113 
1 114 
2 116 
5 121 



Table' l6.-Logs of selE!cted wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Ro 510; 16X, 9 . OS, 7 .IW; New York State Department of Public Works; Thruway test boring, S"'ffern; 
altitude of land surface about 330 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Sand, gray; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
No record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, brown; silt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness 
(feet) 


Depth 
(feet) 


3 


3 


28 
10 
2 
6 
26 


31 
41 
43 
49 
75 


Ro 513; 16X, 8. 3S, 6. 8W; Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co.; Mahwah River valley, north- 
east of Suffern; drilled by Artesian Well and Equipment Co.; altitude of land surface abo'lt 310 
feet. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
8 8 
3 11 
14 25 
12 37 
13 50 
9 59 
11 70 
4 74 
10 84 
3 87 
24 111 
8 119 


Recent: 
Fill.... . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, sandy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Undifferentiated: 
Hardpan and boulders, grayish-brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan, sandy, yellowish-brown; large boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan, brownish; boulders; some lenses of sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Stratified drift: 
Sand and gravel; small boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .' 

 j 
Sand and gravel; cobbles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
. Sand, fine to coarse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine to coarse; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Sand, gravel; boulders; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan, sandy clay; some boulders. . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . 
Triassic. 
Newark group: 
Shale, clayey, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Screen setting: 72-92 feet. 
Yield: 1,700 gpm, 1959. 
Ro 514,; 16X, 7.0S, 9.6W; New York State Thruway Authority; well No.2; Sloatsburg service area; 
drilled by C. W. Lauman & Co., Inc., 1957; altitude of land surface 336 feet. 
Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


Recent and Pleistocene: 
Fin, pieces of stone, boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, gray; some grits, sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gravel, large; stones; fine gray sand.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ., . . . . .. . . .. . 
Gravel, large; stones; coarse grits; brown clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Stones, large; brown clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Screen setting: 21 to 27 feet. 
Yield: 167 gpm, with drawdown of 9.6 feet, 1957. 


97 


9 
2 
4 
11 
2 


9 
11 
15 
26 
28 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Ro 515; 16X, 10.8S, 2.2E; Village of Nyack; test boring No. S-2; West Nyack; drilled by P. J. Healey, 
Inc.; altitude of land surface about 55 feet. 


Recent: 
Sand, brown, boulder fill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Mud bog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Sand, fine to coarse, gray, brown; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, silty, brown and gray; few pebbles. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine, silty, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Sand, red; gravel; silt. .., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Refusal (probably bedrock) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
4 4 
7 11 
6 17 
17 34 
5 39 
19 58 
at 58 


Ro 516; 16X, 10.9S, 2.4E; Village of Nyack; test boring No.6; West Nyack; drilled by P. J. Healey, 
Inc.; altitude of land surface about 55 feet. 


Recent: 
Sand, red; gravel; boulders; fill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Meadow marsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Sand, fine to medium, gray, clean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Peat, brown, soft, silty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay and silt, red and gray, thin layers (varves). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, fine to medium, reddish-gray; some silt; numerous dark rock 
particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Sand, red; clay; gravel (mainly red shale pebbles from 99 to 101 feet). . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Refusal (probably bedrock) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
6 6 
6 12 
9 21 
19 40 
22 62 
22 84 
17 101 
at 101 


Ro 517; 16X, 11.0S, 2.6E; Village of Nyack; test boring No.7; West Nyack; drilled by P. J. Healey, 
Inc.; altitude of land surface about 55 feet. 


Recent: 
Fill; sand and gravel, gray-brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Recent (?) and Pleistocene: 
Peat and silt, dark brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift: 
Silt, brown; some plant material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Silt and clay, red and brown, thin layers (varves). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


,98 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
7 7 
41 48 
14 62 
13 75 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
12 87 
at 87 


Till: 
Clay, red; sand; gravel (mainly red shale pebbles from 84 to 85 feet) . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Refusal (probably bedrock) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ro 532; 16X, 7 .2S, 4.3E; Palisades Interstate Park Commission; Hook Mountain State Park; wen No. 
1; drilled by A. J. Connolly, Inc.; altitude of land surface about 165 feet. 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
1 3 
9 12 
3 15 
6 21 
3 24 
1 25 
3 28 
33 61 
5 66 
2 68 
19 87 
::0 107 
25 132 
18 150 
3 153 
19 172 
28 200 
60 260 
20 280 
425 705 
100 805 


Recent: 
Topsoil and loam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift and till: 
Sand and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand; gravel; boulders; some clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse; gravel; boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand; clay; gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, sandy (water rises 4 feet in pipe) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sa11d and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Hardpan; sand; clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand; gravel; little clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hardpan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Rock, red (small vein, static water level 15 fept) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red (static water level 2 feet) . . . . . .'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, red (water flows 3 feet above surface)....................... 
Rock, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandstone, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sandsto11e, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rock, gray (water flows). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yield: 60 gpm. 
Ro 537; 16X, 5.1S, 2.9E; New York Trap Rock Corp.; test boring No. 13; Haverstraw; drilled by 
Sprague and Henwood; altitude of land surface 270 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Till. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Paljsade diabase: 
Trap rock, broken. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Newark group: 
Sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
 . . 


99 


Thickness r'
pth 
(feet) (feet) 


20 


20 


24 


44 


10 


54 



Table 16.-Logs of selected wells and test borings in Rockland County-(Continued) 
Ro 538; 16X, 5.1S, 2.2E; New York Trap Rock Corp.; test boring No. 17; Haverstraw; drillpd by 
Sprague and Henwood; altitude of land surface 151 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Overburden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone (lost water at 102 feet.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Palisade diabase: 
Trap rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
34 34 
81 115 
25 140 


Ro 539; 16X, 5.3S, 2.5E; New York Trap Rock Corp.; test boring No. 20; Haverstraw; drilled by 
Sprague and Henwood; altitude of land surface 166.4 feet. 


Pleistocene: 
Overburden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone, red; streaks of shale (lost water at 82 feet). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shale, red; streaks of sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 


56 


56 


42 
121 


98 
219 


Ro 540; 16X, 3.2S, 0.9W; New York Water Service Corp.; Thiells; rotary well No.1; drilled by C. W. 
Lauman & Co., Inc.; altitude of land surface about 320 feet. 


Recent: 
Topsoil, brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Loam, brown; and boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pleistocene: 
Stratified drift and till: 
Sand, medium, gray; coarse gravel; boulders; some gray clay (lost mud 
between 19 and 22 feet). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
 . . . . . . . 
Sand, medium, gray; coarse gravel; boulders; gray clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Till: 
Clay, gray; fine to coarse pebbles and boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Boulder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, gray; fine to coarse pebbles and boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sand, coarse, gray; gray clay; pebbles and boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, gray; fine to coarse pebbles and boulders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, gray; coarse; fine to coarse pebbles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, gray; fine to coarse pebbles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, gray; streaks of sand and gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Clay, red; fine to coarse pebbles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Triassic: 
Newark group: 
Sandstone and shale, red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


100 


Thickness Depth 
(feet) (feet) 
2 2 
3 5 


30 35 
21 56 
24 80 
3 83 
30 113 
12 125 
10 135 
6 141 
22 163 
11 174 
30 204 
30 234 



>= 
z 
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120 



Table 18.-Summary of data from pumping tests made by drillers in wells tapping different aqui.".s 


(Discharge determined from orifice readings; depths to water from air-line readings unless indicated otherwise) 
Ro 96; 421 feet deep; Monsey; January 25-30, 1950; Newark group 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water b Drawdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) per minute) (feet) (feet) 
0 0 90 0 Test started at 9 :45 a.m., January 25, 1950; 
well pumped continuously until J 1 :00 
a.m.; January 30, 1950. 
a 105.5 103 13 
a 150.5 110 20 Specific capacity, 7.5 gpmjft. 
a 200 116 26 
a 270 127 37 
a 355 159 69 Specific capacity, 5.1 gpmjft. 


a Time of measurement unknown. 
b Wa.ter level recovered to within 2 feet of static level, 172 hours after shutdown. 


Ro 130; 230 feet deep; Viola; test by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; August 27-28, 1956; Newark group 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water a Drawdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) per minute) (feet) (feet) 
0-0 0 12.5 0 
- 1 430 17.5 5.0 
-2 430 18.5 6.0 
-3 430 19.0 6.5 
- 6 430 19.5 7.0 
- 8 430 19.5 7.0 
-15 430 20.5 8.0 
-20 430 20.5 8.0 
2- 0 430 21.52 9.02 
-15 430 21.82 9.32 Specific capacity 46 gpmjft. 
-35 430 22.01 9.51 
-50 430 22.18 9.68 
5-45 430 24.50 12.00 
-48 430 23.23 10.73 
6-20 430 23.39 10.89 
7-15 430 23.54 11.04 
-55 430 23.69 11.19 
8-30 430 23.75 11.25 
23- 0 430 25.04 12.54 
-30 430 25.09 12.59 Specific capacity 35 gpmjft. 
24- 0 430 25.05 12.55 


a Wetted tape measurements made from 2 hours after start of pumping until end of test; water level recovered to within 2 feet of mea.surbg point 
a.bout 2 hours after shutdown. 


121 



Table l8.-Summary of data from pumping tests-(Continued) 


Ro 190: 97 feet deep: Suffern: February 26, 1952: stratified drift 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water Drawdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) per minute) (feet) (feet) 
0- 0 0 10.3 0 
- 5 1,2.50 17.5 7.2 
-16 1,2.50 17.5 7.2 
-26 1,250 17.5 7.2 
-36 1,250 17.5 7.2 
-46 1,250 17.5 7.2 
-56 1,250 17.5 7.2 
1- 6 1,250 17.5 7.2 Specific capacity 173 gpmjft. 


Ro 255: 329 feet deep: Hook Mountain State Park: test by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; April 16, 1948; Newark grou'" 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water Drawdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) per minute) (feet) (feet) 
0- 0 . 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 'Vell flowing. 
-45 98 70 70 
1-15 9.5 65 65 
-45 95 62 62 
2-15 93 65 65 Specific capacity 1.4 gpmjft. 
-45 88 62 62 
3-15 82 60 60 
-45 82 60 60 
4-15 84 61 61 
-45 82 6] 6] 
5-15 82 61 I 
61 
-45 84 62 62 
6-15 85 63 63 
-45 80 62 62 Specific capacity 1.3 gpmjft. 


Ro 286: 71 feet deep: Piermont; test by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; July 27, 1954. Data from 
Leggette, Brashears, and Graham; stratified drift 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallo ns water Drawdown Remarks 
(hours--minutes) per minute) (feet) (feet) 
0- 0 0 8 0 
- 5 241 21 13 
-10 241 25 17 


122 



Table 18.-Summary of data from pumping tests-(Continued) 


Ro 286; 71 feet deep; Piermont; test by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; July 27, 1954-(Continued) 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water Drawdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) per minute) (feet) (feet) 
-40 241 32 24 
1-10 238 38 30 
-40 241 39 31 
2-10 241 39.5 31.5 
-40 241 39.5 31.5 
3-10 241 39.5 31.5 
-40 241 40 32 
4-10 241 40 32 Specific capacity 7 . 5 gpm/ft. 
-40 238 40 32 
5-10 238 40 32 
-40 238 40 32 
6-10 238 40.5 32.5 
-40 165 35 27 
7-10 140 30 22 
-40 109 25 17 
8-00 109 25 17 Specific capacity 6.4 gpm/ft. 


Ro 291; 601 feet deep; Germonds; test by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; August 19-21, 1953; Newark group 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water Drawdown Remarks 
(hours-minu tes) per minute) (feet) (feet) 
0-0 0 23 0 
-15 204 190 167 
-35 188 191 168 
-45 186 196 173 
-55 178 197 17-i 
1-10 178 197 174 Specific capacity 1 gpm/ft. 
-25 175 198 175 
-55 170 199 176 
2-25 165 200 177 
-55 167 202 179 
3-25 165 204- 181 
-55 . 163 205 182 
4-25 163 205 182 
-55 163 205 182 
5-25 160 205 182 
-55 158 205 182 
6-25 158 205 182 


123 



Table lB.-Summary of data from pumping tests-(Continued) 
Ro 291; 601 feel deep; Germonds; lesl by Artesian Wen and Equipmenl Co., Inc.; Augusl 19-21, 1953; Newark group-{Conlinu1'(1) 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water Drawdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) per minute) (feet) (feet) 
-55 156 205 182 
7-25 156 205 182 
-55 155 205 182 
8-25 155 205 182 
-55 155 205 182 
9-25 152 202 179 
-55 152 202 179 
10-25 151 201 178 
-55 151 201 178 
11-25 151 201 178 
-55 150 200 177 
12-25 150 200 177 
-55 150 200 177 
15-55 150 200 177 
18-55 150 200 177 
21-55 150 200 177 
24-55 150 200 177 
27-55 148 202 179 
30-55 148 203 180 
33-55 150 203 180 
36-55 150 203 180 
39-55 148 203 180 
42-55 148 202 179 
43-55 150 203 180 
44-55 148 205 182 
46-55 148 205 182 
47-50 148 207 184 
48-55 150 221 198 
49-55 150 221 198 
50-35 150 221 198 Specific capacity 0.76 gpmjft. 


Ro 293; 430 feel deep; New City; test by Artesian Well and Equipmenl Co., Inc.; December 11, 1953; Newark group 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water Drawdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) per minute) (feet) (feet) .. 
- 
0- 0 0 11 0 
-30 228 147 136 
1- 0 226 148 137 Specific capacity 1 .6 gpmjft. 
-30 225 150 139 


124 



Table l8.-Summary of data from pumping tests-(Continued) 


Ro. 293; 430 feet deep; New City; test by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.-(Continued) 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water Drawdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) per minute) (feet) (feet) 
2- 0 225 150 139 
-30 225 150 139 
3- 0 225 150 139 
-30 224 150 139 
4- 0 222 151 140 
-30 221 151 140 
5- 0 221 151 140 
-30 222 151 140 
6- 0 222 151 140 
-30 221 152 141 
7- 0 221 152 141 
-30 221 152 141 
8- 0 221 153 142 Specific capacity 1 .5 gpm/ft. 


Ro 294; 413 feet deep; Tallman; October 3, 1956; test by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; Newark group 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water Drawdown Remarks 
(hours- minu tes) per minute) (feet) (feet) 
0-0 Flows . . . . . . . . . . Measuring point 2 ft. above land surface. 
about Static level about 3 ft. above meas'lring 
20 gpm point. 
- 5 240 56 59 
- 7 240 60 63 
-8 240 52 65 
- 9 240 64 67 
-10 240 65 68 
-12 240 67 70 
-14 240 70 73 
-16 240 72 75 
-18 240 73 76 
-20 240 75 78 
-22 240 76 79 
-25 240 79 82 
-30 240 82 85 
-35 240 83.5 86.5 
-40 240 85 88 
-45 240 86 89 
-50 240 87 90 
-55 240 89 92 
1- 0 240 90 93 Specific capacity 2.5 gpm/ft. 


125 



Table 18.-Summary of data from pumping tests-(Continued) 


Ro 294; 413 feet deep; Tallman; October 3, 1956; test by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; Newark group-(Continued') 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water Drawdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) per minute) (feet) (feet) 
-10 240 90.5 93.5 
1-15 240 91.5 94.5 
-20 240 92 95 
-30 240 93.5 96.5 
-45 240 94.5 97.5 
2- 0 240 96 99 
-15 240 96.5 99.5 
-30 240 97 100 
-45 240 98 101 
3- 0 240 99 102 
-15 240 100 103 
-30 240 101 104 
-45 240 102 105 
4- 0 240 102.5 105.5 
-15 240 103 106 
-30 240 103.5 106.5 
-45 240 104.5 107.5 
5-45 240 104.5 107.5 
6- 0 240 105 108 
-15 240 107 110 
7- 0 240 107 110 
-30 240 107 110 
8- 0 240 109 112 
-30 240 109 112 
9- 0 240 109 112 
-30 240 110 113 
10- 0 240 110.5 113.5 Specific capacit.y 1.1 gpnl/ft. 


Ro 422; 401 feet deep; Nanuet; test by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; May 24-26, 1954; Newark group 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water Drawdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) per minute) (feet) (f eet) 
0- 0 0 4 0 
1-30 472 149 145 Specific capacity 3.2 gpm/ft. 
2- 0 472 150 146 
-30 472 150 146 
3- 0 472 151 147 
-30 465 151 147 
4- 0 46.5 151 147 


126 



TABLE l8.-Summary of data from pu,mping tests-(Continued) 
Ro 422; 401 feet deep; Nanuet; test by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.-(Continued) 
Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water Drawdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) per minute) (feet) (feet) 
. 
-30 465 151 147 
5- 0 465 152 148 
7-30 465 152 148 
8- 0 465 153 149 
13-30 465 153 149 
14- 0 395 128 124 
-30 395 126 122 
25-30 395 126 122 
26- 0 295 89 85 
-30 295 89 85 
27- 0 350 107 103 
31-30 3.50 107 103 
32- 0 350 108 104 
36-30 350 108 104 
37- 0 350 109 105 
-30 3.50 109 105 
38- 0 275 85 81 
-30 275 85 81 
39- 0 275 84 80 
-30 275 82 78 
43-30 275 82 78 
44-0 275 81 77 
-30 275 81 77 
47-30 275 80 76 
48- 0 465 1.54 1.50 
-30 465 155 151 
49- 0 46.5 157 1.53 
50- 0 461 157 153 
53- 0 461 1.57 153 
-30 457 1.58 1.54 
59- 0 4.57 1.58 1.54 
-30 450 1.59 1.55 
63- 0 4.50 159 1.5.5 Specific capacity 2.9 gpmjft. 
Ro 467; 600 feet deep; Hillburn; test by C. W. Lauman & Co., Inc., June 18, 1955; Precambrian rocks 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water a Dra wdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) per minute) (feet) (feet) 
0-0 0 234 0 
-15 192 278 44 
-30 187 289 55 


& Water level recovered to 267 feet about one hour after shutdown. 


127 



Table 1 I.-Summary of data from pumping tests-(Continued) 


Ro 467; 600 feet deep; Hillburn; test by C. W. Lauman & Co., Inc., June 18, 1955; Precambrian rocks-(Continued) 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water a Drawdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) pel' minute) (feet) (feet) 
-45 187 296 62 
1- 0 178 300 66 Specific capacity 2.7 gpm/ft. 
-15 178 303 69 
-30 175 306 72 
-45 175 309 75 
2- 0 170 310 76 
-15 165 310 76 
-30 160 310 76 
-45 160 310 76 
3- 0 165 312 78 
-15 165 312 78 
-30 180 317 83 
-45 180 317 83 
4- 0 178 320 86 Specific capacity 2.1 gpmjft. 


. 


· Water level recovered to 267 feet about one hour after shutdown. 


Ro 483; 655 feet deep; Pearl River; test by Artesian Well and Equipment Co., Inc.; December 17, 1953; Newark group 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water Drawdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) pel' minute) (feet) (feet) 
0-0 0 45 0 
- 3 No record 70 2.1:) 
-10 do. H6 51 
-25 do. 123 78 
-55 283 152 107 
1-25 267 155 110 Specific capacity 2.4 gpm/ft. 
-55 238 155 110 
2-25 225 155 110 
-55 225 155 110 
3-25 222 155 110 
-55 222 156 111 
4-25 222 155 110 
-55 219 156 111 
5-25 211 155 110 
-55 211 155 110 
6-25 207 156 111 
-55 207 156 111 
7-25 204 156 111 
-55 204 156 111 


128 



Table 18.-Summary of data from pumping tests-(Continued) 


Ro 483; 655 feet deep; Pearl River; test by Artesian Well & Equipment Co., Inc.-(Continued) 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons water Drawdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) per minute) (feet) (feet) 
8-25 204 156 111 
-55 204 156 111 
10-25 204 156 111 Specific capacity 1.8 gpm/ft. 


Ro 514; 27 feet deep; Sloatsburg; test by C. W. Lauman & Co., Inc., October 21, 1957; stratified drift 


Time since Discharge Depth to 
start of pumping (gallons wa tel' Dl'awdown Remarks 
(hours-minutes) per minute) (feet) (feet) 
0- 0 0 12.3 0 
-30 203 17.6 5.3 Specific capacity 37 gpm/ft. 
1- 0 185 19.8 7.5 
-30 180 20.8 8.5 
2- 0 178 21.1 8.8 
-30 175 21.3 9.0 
3- 0 172 21.5 9.2 
-30 170 21.5 9.2 
4- 0 167 21. 7 9.4 
-30 167 21.8 9.5 
5-0 167 21. 9 9.6 
-30 167 21. 9 9.6 
6-0 167 21.9 9.6 
-30 167 21.9 9.6 
7- 0 167 21.9 9.6 
-30 167 21. 9 9.6 
8- 0 167 21.9 9.6 Specific capacity 17 gpmjft. 


129 




A 


Page 


Agricultural pun1page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 52 
Air temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 
Artificial recharge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 58 


B 


Bardol1ia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 33 
Bear Mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28, 29 
Bedrock map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pI. 2 
Blauvelt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32, 49, 55 


C 


Cambrian and Ordovician rocks. . . . . 13-15, pI. 2 
Cedar Pond Brook............ .......... .5, 43 
Chemical analyses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34-38 
Clarkstown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2, 19, 51 
Clilnate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 
Consolidated rocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-23 
Construction of wells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 46 
Contamination of water......... .......... 58 
Cooperative investigation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 9 
Cortlandt series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, Vj 
Clliture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 1, 2 


D 


Development of wells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48, fig. 12 
Discharge measurements, streams. . . . . . . . . . 5 
Drainage, basins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 5 


F 


Faults, in bedrock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pI. 2 


G 


Geology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-11 
bedrock map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pI. 2 
geologic properties, Cambrian and Ordo- 
vician rocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-15 

ewarkgroup..................... .15-17 
surface of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-17 
physical properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 19 
Palisade diabase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-22 
assoeiated igneous rocks. . . . . . . . . . .22-23 
Precambrian rocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14 
stratified drift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25-26 
till. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-24 
history. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11 
stratigraphy, sumnlary of. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7-9 


INDEX 


Page 
structural. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 
surficial map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pI. 3 
Germonds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22, 33, 55 
Ground water, additional development. . . .56-57 
consolidated rocks, Canlbrian and Ordo- 
vician. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-15 
Ladentown diabase... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 23 

 ewark group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13, 15-21 
Palisade diabase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 21-23 
Precambrian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14 
Principal aquifer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 17 
problems, present and future. . . . . . . . . . .. 57 
source and occurrence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-12 
unconsolidated deposits, Recent. . . . . . . .. 28 
stratified drift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25-28 
till....... .. .. . . ., .. ., .. . . . . . . . . .. .23-25 
water levels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28-33 


H 


Hackensack River. . . . .4-5, 10, 16, 25, 28, 29, 42 
Haverstraw.. .... .. .. . . .5, 24, 42, 43,51, 52, 53 
Hillburn... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14, 54, 55 
Hudson River. . . . . . . . . . . .4, 6, 7, 10, 14-17, 20, 
24-26,28,41-43,48 


I 


Industrial pumpage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 52 
Institutional pumpage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 52 


L 


Ladentowll diabase. . . . . . ., . . .. . . .. . . .23, pI. 2 
Lake De Forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4, 24, 26, 44, pI. 3 
Lederle Laboratories. . . . . . . . . . .28, 29, 47, 51-53 
Logs of wells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 60 


M 


Mahwah, 
. J.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 
Mahwah River. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4, 5, 25, 4:2, 57 
Miniseeongo Creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 
Monsey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32, 51, 55 


N 



 anuet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32, E 1, 55 

ewark group, bedrock unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 
chemical analyses of water in.. . . . . . . . . 040-42 
chenlical quality of water in. . . . . . . . . . . .. 44 


131 



INDEX (Continued) 


Page 
conlparison of yields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1, 13 
general geology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10 
improvement in yield. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 48 
lithology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 
occurrence of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15 
physical properties of. . . . . . .'. . . . . . . . . . .. 19 
principal aquifer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 17 
relief on the surface of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 16 
sampling points........................ 39 
springs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. -1:8 
tenlperature of water in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46-47 
withdrawals and development. . . . . . . . . .49-57 
New City... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41, 55 
New Hempstead... ................ .21,32,55 
N ew York Rehabilitation Hospital. . . . . . . " 52 
New York State, Department of Health. . . .2,33 
Department of Public Works. . . . . . . . . . . .7,19 
Museum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 
Thruway Authority. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 
Water Power and Control Commission. .2, 3, .5, 
7,9 
New York Water Service Corp.. . . . .7, 51, 52, 54 
Nyack.. . . . . . " . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .5,22,41,53,54 


o 
Observation wells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28-29 
Orange burg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19, 30 
Orangeburg Manufacturing Corp.. . . . . . . . .52-53 
Orangetown.... . . . . . . . . .. . . .... .... .. .. .2,51 


P 
Palisade diabase, bedrock unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 
chemical analyses of water in. . . . . . . . . . .40, 42 
comparison of yield. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 
lithologic and water-bearing properties. . . .8,23 
occurrence and characteristics. . . . . . . . . " 21 
source of additional ground water. . . . . . " 56 
springs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 48 
structural geology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9, 10 
Pascack Brook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 42 
Pearl River.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24, 28, 31, 55 
Permeability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 11, 12 
Newark group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 19 
Palisade diabase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 23 
Recent deposits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23, 28 
stratified drift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 26 
till. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 24 
Piermont. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26, 53, 55 


Page 
Pleistocene deposits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-11, 23-28 
Population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1, 2, 12 
Porosity. .............................. 12 
Camblian and Ordovician rocks. . . . . . . .. 15 
Newark group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17, 19 
Palisade diabase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 23 
Precambrian rocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13 
till. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 24 
Precalllbrian rocks, bedrock unit. . . . . . . . . . . 1 
geologic history. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10 
occurrence and description. " . . . . . .7, 8, 12-13 
porosity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13 
source of additional ground water. . . . . . .56-57 
structural geology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 
withdrawals from. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49, 53 
yield of wells in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-14 
Principal aquifer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12, 17 
Public supplies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49-50, 52-56 
Pumpage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49-56 
Pumping tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121-129 
Punlps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 48 


S 
Saddle River. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 
Salt-water encroachment. . . . . . . . . . . . .42, 43, 57 
Sloatsburg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5, 57 
Sparkill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51, 55 
Sparkill Creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4, 20, 56 
Springs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48, 50 
Spring Valley. . . . . . . . . . .6. 21, 31, 32, 45, 53, 56 
Spring Valley Water Works and Supply Co. 
6,7,13,19,20,22,44,49,51-56 
Stony Brook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 
Stony Point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2, 15, 20, 51, 53 
Stratified drift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-28 
chemical analyses of water in. . . . . . .40, 42, 44 
dug wells in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 48 
springs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 48 
source of additional water. . . . . . . . . . . . . .56-57 
temperature of water in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., 46 
withdrawals from. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49, 51-56 
Suffern... . . . . . . . . . . . .5, 6, 21, 26,27,44,46,57 
Summit Park. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28, 32 
Surface Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4, 5, 37, 38, 40, 43 


T 
Tallman. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51, 55 
Tappan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-. .-. .-. . . . . . .32, 51, 55 


132 



INDEX (Continued) 


Page 
Tappan Zee Bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16, 17, pI. 4 
Thiells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14, 51, 54 
Till. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-25 
Tomkins Cove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., 15 
Towns, Clarkstown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2, 19, 51 
Haverstraw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2, 5, 51 
Orangetown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2, 51 
Ramapo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2, 19, 51 
Stony Point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2, 15, 51 
U 
U. S. Public Health Service standards. . . . .. 41 
Upper Nyack. . . .' .. . . " .... .... .. .. .. .16,54 
V 
Viola. . ...... .... . . .... ., .... .. .20,33, 51, 56 


w 


Page 


Water levels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28-33 
Well, construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46, 48 
development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48, 49, 56 
drillers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 
location map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pI. 1 
logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60-100 
numbering system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 
records of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101-120 
yields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13 
Westchester County. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7, 15, 24 
West N yack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 16, 24 


Y 


Yields of wells................ .13,15,101-120 


133